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an allergen is a nonparazitic antigen, capable of stimulating hypersensitivity reaction in sensitiva individuals. It means that most humans mount significant immunresponses only as a defense against parasitic infections. However, some allergic individuals mount this immunresponse against common environmental antigens, pollens, foods, animal material, etc.

Officially, the USA FDA (Food and Drug Administration) does recognize 8 foods as being common for allergic reactions in a large segment of the sensitive population, which includes, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, shellfish, fish, wheat and their derivatives, soy and their derivatives, and sulphites (chemical based, often found in flavors and colors in foods) at 10ppm and over.

Most frequent allergens:
Foods: out of the FDA list many fruits (strowberry) and vegetables (celery), eggs, legumes, milk and milkproducts, all kind of seafood, sesame, etc.
Animal products: cat allergy, fur and dander, cocroach, wool and feather, dust mite.
Drugs: penicillin, sulfonamides, salicylates, anaesthetics.
Insect stings: bee, wasp, mosquito
Mold spores
Plant pollens: grasses, weeds and trees.

Most frequent allergies:
asthma, hay-fiver, skin rush, eczema, food allergy

Source: Wikipedia


allergy is a disorder of the human immune system. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens.

It is kind of hypersensitivity and is characterised by excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophil granulocites by a type of antibody known as IgE, resulting in an extreme inflammatory response. Common allergic reactions include eczema, hives, hay fever, asthma attacks, food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees.

Mild allergies like hay fever are highly prevalent in the human population and cause symptoms such as allergic conjunctivitis, itchiness, and runny nose. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma. In some people, severe allergies to environmental or dietary allergens or to medication may result in life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and potentially death.

A variety of tests now exist to diagnose allergic conditions; these include testing the skin for responses to known allergens or analyzing the blood for the presence and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Treatments for allergies include allergen avoidance, use of anti-histamines, steroids or other oral medications, immunotherapy to desensitize the response to allergen, and targeted therapy.

The medical specialty concerned with allergies is allergology.

(Source: Wikipedia)

allocation rule, LCA
alloy means a metallic material, homogenous on a macroscopic scale, consisting of two or more elements so combined that they can not be readily separated by mechanical means has been granted for that use or unless an exemption applies (Source: REACH).
alpha-ketoglutaric acid

alpha-ketoglutaric acid bounds ammonia (in the form of α-ketoglutarate) produced by de-amination of glutamate. It plays important role in the Krebs-cycle, in the synthesis of amino-acid glutamine, in the ammonia-cycle. It is co-substrate for some oxigenase enzymes.

It is used as dietary supplement, mainly for body builders.

alternative electronacceptor
alternative energy source

any energy source that can be utilised without the use of burning fossil fuels and as a consequence without the undesired effects of the replaced fuels. Such alternative sources are almost always a renewable energy source such as hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power or bioenergy from biomass. The latter one is questionable from the point of view of eco-efficiency: a life cycle assessment may decide its ecologically friendly or not friendly character. Biogas from organic waste or briquette from waste biomass can be ecologically friendly, but palm oil produced on the soil of killed rain-forest, cannot be eco-efficient.

aluminium phosphide

aluminium phosphide is an inorganic compound used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant. This colourless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due to the presence of impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation. It has a strong, garlic like smell.

EC Number: 244-088-0; CAS number: 20859-73-8

It is not a highly flammable solid, but in contact with water it evolves highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities. The gas ignites spontaneously. Phosphine (PH3) is produced when hydrolysing.

Aluminium phosphid is used as a rodenticide, insecticide, and fumigant for stored cereal grains. It is used to kill small verminous mammals such as moles, and rodents. The tablets or pellets typically also contain other chemicals that evolve ammonia which helps to reduce the potential for spontaneous ignition or explosion of the phosphine gas.

As a rodenticide, aluminium phosphide pellets are provided as a mixture with food for consumption by the rodents. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. Other pesticides similar to aluminium phosphide are zinc phosphide and calcium phosphide.

Aluminiumphosphid a semiconductor material is usually alloyed with other binary materials for applications in devices such as light-emitting diodes, such as aluminium gallium indium phosphide.

It is classified under REACH and CLP as following:

Hazard classes, Hazard categories

  • Water-reactivity 1
  • Acute Toxicity 2
  • Acute Toicity 3
  • Aquatic Acute 1

Hazard statements

  • H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
  • H300 Fatal if swallowed
  • H311 Toxic in contact with skin
  • H400 Very toxic to aquatic life





amalgam is an alloy formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, notable exceptions being iron and platinum. Silver-mercury amalgams are important in dentistry, and gold-mercury amalgam is used in the extraction of gold from ore.

Dental amalgam: 50% mercury and 50% powder form metal mix of silver, lead, tin and copper.

Potassium amalgam, sodium amalgam and ammonium amalgam are industrial chemicals.

Mercury as alloying agent in mining had been used for gold mining and gold processing - extraction from ore.

Aluminium amalgam is a reducing agent, thallium amalgam is used in thermometers for measuring low temperature (minus 58 oC. Tin amalgam was used for mirror coating in the 19th centiry.

Mercury can analytically be detected and determined by the amalgam probe, an analytical method based on quantitative amalgam formation.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalgam_%28chemistry%29

ambient noise or vibration source
American Society for Testing Materials ASTM

ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Known for their high technical quality and market relevancy, ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy.

Source: http://www.astm.org/

amino acid

amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side chain that varies between different amino acids. Alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent, play important role in the metabolism of living organisms. One particularly important function is as the building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of amino acids. Every protein is chemically defined by this primary structure, its unique sequence of amino acid residues, which in turn define the three-dimensional structure of the protein.

Amino acids are synthesized from Glutamate, which is formed by amination of α-ketoglutarate:

α-Ketoglutarate + NH4+ = Glutamate

Afterwards, Alanine and Aspartate are formed by transamination of Glutamate. All of the remaining amino acids are then constructed from Glutamate or Aspartate, by transamination of these two amino acids with one α-keto acid.

Humans are able to synthetise only part of the necessary amino-acids, 8 pf them are so calle essential aminoacids, which should be taken up by nutrition. The essential amino acids are: Isoleucine, Leucine, Lizyne, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophane and Valine.


ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water.


ammonium is a positive ion NH4+ in the solution of NH3 in water.


anaemia or anemia, decrease in normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.


anaerobic is a technical word which means without air. Air is generally used to mean atmospheric oxygen. Anaerobic is the opposite aerobic.

In the environmnetal technologies the absence of atmospheric oxygen is indicated as anoxic; and anaerobic is used to indicate the absence of a common electron acceptor such as nitrate, sulfate or oxygen.

anaerobic biodegradation, anaerobic digestion
anaerobic digestion based technology

detailed examination of anything complex, made in order to understand its nature or to determine its essential features, such as composition, inner structure, distribution of components and any consequences of these, association and other relations between the components.

This kind of detailed analysis is applied by economy, engineering, environmental science and practice, ecology, social sciences, etc. It is often mixed up with "assessment", which is qualitative and quantitative characterisation of the targeted health, environmental, industrial, economical, social, educational, political, etc. situation and it serves as basis for analysis.

In the field of chemistry it covers chemical analyses. It is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.

Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is generally performed prior to analysis.

Chemical analytical methods are classified according the tool they apply. According to the tools we differentiate between qualitative and quantitative analyses as well as preparatory methods.

Aim of the qualitative analysis is to find a direct or indirect proof for the presence of the substance in question or its product. Qualitative tools are: identification of the chemical compound based on physico-chemical behaviour (colour, melting point, flame-ionisation, mass-spectrum), chemical reactions, including biochemical and molecular biological (e.g. DNA) techniques, such as product of the chemical substance with a specific chemical reagent. In case of biologically active substances, the product of a biochemical reaction or the response of a biological system can also be measured. A new and very efficient analytical tool is the identification of certain DNA sequences.

Quantitative tools are based on measuring mass, volume, flux or intensity. For measuring the quantity-related endpoint the following traditional and instrumental methods can be used: gravimetry, volumetry, microscopy, spectrometry, mass spectrometry, electrochemical and thermal techniques, etc. Most of the quantitative tools apply standards to be able to express the result of the measured endpoint in concentration.

For the separation of the components of a mixture the traditional analysis applies precipitation, extraction, and distillation, the instrumental tools are the different chromatographic and electrophoretic methods.

Chemical analyses has widespread use in diagnosis and remediation, environmental science and practice, chemical industries, agriculture, food industry and all kind of other industries. The utilisation of analytical methods includes monitoring, early warning or quality assurance on the fields of human health, environment and industries.

chemical for which a sample (environmental sample, food, waste, biological sample, etc.) is tested, or analysed.
analyte, a substance to be analysed

a substance measured in the laboratory. A chemical substance for which a sample (such as water, air, or blood) is tested in a laboratory. For example, if the analyte is cadmium, the laboratory test will determine the amount of cadmium in the sample and the result will be given in Cd-concentration.

androgen hormones

any steroid hormone that promotes male secondary sex characters. The two main androgens are androsterone and testosterone. Called also androgenic hormone.  

The androgenic hormones are internal endocrine secretions circulating in the bloodstream and manufactured mainly by the testes under stimulation from the pituitary gland. To a lesser extent, androgens are produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes, as well as by the ovaries in women. Thus women normally have a small percentage of male hormones, in the same way that men's bodies contain some female sex hormones, the estrogens. Male secondary sex characters include growth of the beard and deepening of the voice at puberty. Androgens also stimulate the growth of muscle and bones throughout the body and thus account in part for the greater strength and size of men as compared to women.

Source: medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Anti-androgen


chest pain due to a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply of the heart muscle.

animal modell

a laboratory animal useful for research.

animal testing

human toxicity testing of chemical substances is mainly based on the results of animal toxicity tests. In these tests the information on the effect of chemical substances comes from animal experimentation, which from an extrapolation is possible to man, supposing that the properly selected animal species’ response is analogous to human body’s response and the test-method, the applied test scenario perfectly models real human exposure. The main methodology for extrapolation for example from rat to man, is the application of a safety factor, based on experience. The default for the interspecies safety factor is EC50 (human)/EC50 (animal) = 0.1, because drugs and toxic chemical substances are ten times more potent in humans based on existing pharmacological and toxicological data.

Animal data are suitable to establish the dose or the concentration of the chemical substance that would cause adverse effect, damage or death, and based on these tests we can determine or calculate the lowest effect and the highest no effect concentrations or doses, which are manageable limit values.

Animal testing has many subclasses, according to the applied animal taxon (fish, bird, mouse, rat, dog, monkey, etc.), the type of exposure (acute, repeated or chronic exposure), exposure routes (inhalation, peroral, cutaneous, mixed routes), aim of the test method (toxicity, mutagenicity, reprotoxicity, neurotoxicity testing) and according to the measured endpoint such as death, immobilization, changes in behavior, irritation, corrosion, organ-toxicity (cardiac-, ophthalmic-, cutaneous-, muscle-, bone-, or hepatotoxicity), cellular toxicity (cell death, mitochondrial, perixosome, cellular tight junctions, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and glutathione-transferase, metabolomics, DNA-changes, chemokines, etc.) toxicity on endocrine system, immuntoxicity, phototoxicity, photoallergy.

anionic detergents
Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC

Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC contains a list of harmonised classifications and labellings for substances or groups of substances, which are legally binding within the EU.
The list is regularly updated through Adaptations to Technical Progress (ATP). Revised and new classifications inserted to the list are proposed by DG ENV (EC Directorate General responsible for environment) and agreed by a Member State vote.
The DG ENV proposal is based on advice from the Technical Committee for Classification and Labelling (TC C&L) with participation of experts from the Member States.
The list is published in OJ L 152 of 30/04/2004 and can be found on the following web-address: http://www.reach-compliance.eu/english/legislation/docs/launchers/launch-annex-1-67-548-EEC.html

Annex VI, CLP

Annex VI of the CLP Regulation contains the list of substances, which should be classified according to harmonised classification (legal classification: GHS, Globally Harmonized System). The same role filled formerly Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.


Annex XIII contains criteria for the identification of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances, and very persistent and very bioaccumulative substances (vPvB).

Source: REACH


Annex XIV: Authorisation Priority List, contains the substances which are subject of authorisation and the specific timeline for sunsetting & application.

Source: REACH

Annex XV. dossier, REACH

Annex XV dossiers are the regulatory instruments for the Authorities (Member States or the Agency) to propose and justify:

  • a harmonised classification and labelling of substances as carcinogenic, mutagenic and or toxic to reproduction (CMR) and as respiratory sensitisers, or for any other endpoint if justification for action at Community level can be provided. Agreement on a dossier for harmonised classification and labelling will lead to the addition of the classification to Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.
  • the identification of CMR substances, PBT substances, vPvB substances or substances of an equivalent level of concern. Agreement on the identification of a substance as a PBT, vPvB or of an equivalent level of concern means that it is a substance of very high concern and is to be included in the candidate list of substances for eventual inclusion in Annex XIV of the REACH Regulation, and through this be subject to authorisation. Substances with PBT or vPvB properties, wide dispersive use or high volumes will be priority substances for inclusion in Annex XIV.
  • Restriction on the manufacture, placing on the market or use of substances within the Community. Agreement on proposed restrictions will lead to the addition of any agreed restrictions to Annex XVII of the REACH Regulation. Any subsequent manufacture, placing on the market or use of the substance has to comply with the conditions of the restrictions.

Annex XV of the REACH Regulation lays down general principles for preparing these three types of dossier.

Source: REACH


Annex XVI is the socio-economic analysis of the substance in question.


Annex XVII contains restrictions on the manufacture, placing on the market and use of certain dangerous substances, preparations and articles.

Source: REACH


an anomaly is any occurrence or object that is strange, unusual, or unique. It can also mean a discrepancy or deviation from an established rule or trend.


a biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the known effects of the individual substances were added together.

See also additive effect and synergism or synergistic effect.


anti-infalammatory drugs reduce swelling, fever, and pain, the signs of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs include Aspirin, Motrin, Advil, and Tylenol.

Anti-inflammatory drugs belong to different chemical groups, such as steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, combined ones and antirheumatic agents.

The groups of drugs according to the WHO ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification) system, are the following:

1 Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids

1.1 Butylpyrazolidines

1.2 Acetic acid derivatives and related substances

1.3 Oxicams

1.4 Propionic acid derivatives

1.5 Fenamates

1.6 Coxibs

1.7 Other anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agents, non-steroids

2 Anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination

2.1 Anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination with corticosteroids

2.2 Other anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination with other drugs

3 Specific antirheumatic agents

3.1 Quinolines

3.2 Gold preparations

3.3 Penicillamine and similar agents

3.4 Other specific antirheumatic agents


antoandrogen is a substance that blocks the action of androgens, the hormones responsible for male characteristics. Used to treat prostate cancers that require male hormones for growth.

Many of the natural and man-made environmental contaminants have antiandrogenic effect, phtalates are one example for that.

Environmental compounds affecting the endocrine system, are called are antagonistic to any biochemical molecule of the hormon system. Antiandrogenic chemical substances antagonistically affect androgen receptors and androgen production can negatively affect individuals that come in contact with the compounds. As antoandrogens affect male sex-hormone system, thay are considered as reprotoxic chemical substances, impacting future generations too.

Certain pesticides and insecticides as well as in industrial chemicals contain antiandrogenic chemicals. Natural compounds, such as biologically active phytochemicals may also have antiandrogenic effects. Exposure to these environmental antiandrogens has resulted in adverse effects on animals and from animal testresults and biomonitoring data we can predict the human health riskss of these chemical compound.

Exposure to pesticides and insecticides with antiandrogenic properties has been found to negatively affect humans and laboratory animals. Androgens are important in fetal development as well as in pubertal development. Exposure during critical periods of development can cause reproductive malformations in males while exposure after birth and before puberty can delay pubertal development (Wikipedia).

Animal studies with vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and the DDT metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p.p’-DDE) show irregular reproductive development due to their function as androgen receptor antagonists that inhibit androgen-activated gene expression. Even with low doses of antiandrogenic pesticides, developmental effects such as reduced anogenital distance and induction of areolas were seen in male rats (Gray et al. 2001).

Animal studies show that deformities result in offspring exposed to antiandrogens. Male mice can display malformations that resemble the reproductive organs of females as in the case of exposure to vinclozolin or proymidone. Exposure to vinclozolin or procymidone in utero feminized male offspring, as seen in abnormalities of anogenital distance, small or absent sex accessory glands, hypospadias, undescended testes, retained nipples, cleft phallus, and presence of a vaginal pouch. Male mice exposed before puberty to vinclozolin experienced delayed pubertal development visualized by delayed onset of androgen-dependent preputial separation (Grey et al. 2001).

Ketoconazole's imidazole derivative is used as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent effective against a variety of fungal infections. Although ketoconazole is a relatively weak antiandrogen, side-effects seen as a result of exposure include serious liver damage and reduced levels of androgens from both the testicles and adrenal glands (Grey et al. 2001)

Many organophostphate insecticides behave as androgen receptor antagonists.

Industrial chemicals with antiandrogenic effects are ubiquitous in the environment. Consumer products such as toys and cosmetics may contain phthalates. Phthalates are mainly found in plastics. Fetuses that are exposed to a mixture of pthalates in utero may show signs of disrupted reproductive development. When Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) were combined, reductions in both testosterone synthesis and gene expression of steroidogenic pathway proteins were seen. The result in male rats was undescended testes and abnormal development of reproductive tissues ( Rieder et al. 2010)

Parabens are commonly found in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Paraben esters have been found to mimic androgen antagonist activity. Antiandrogenic endocrine disruption has been shown in aquatic species but the mechanism is unknown.

Natural antiandrogenic chemicals of plant origin are mentioned here (Wikipedia):

3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is definitely antiandrogen, deriving from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and kale. Spearmint tea has antiandrogenic properties in females with hirsutism (excessive hairiness on women). The plant Scutellaria baicalensis (North American skullcap) may also have antiandrogenic properties. The compound N-butylbenzene-sulfonamide (NBBS) isolated from Pygeum africanum (an evergreen tree from Sub-Saharan Africa) is a specific androgen antagonist. Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice, a plant to extract sweetener from) has shown antiandrogenic activity in male rats. A herbal formula (termed KMKKT) containing Korean Angelica gigas (a perennial plant grown in China and Korea) Nakai (AGN) root and nine other oriental herbs has shown in vitro anti-androgen activity.


Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Wolf CJ, Lambright C, Parks L, Veeramachaneni DN, Wilson V, Price M, Hotchkiss A, Orlando E, Guillette L. (2001). "Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals". Human Reproduction Update 2: 248–64, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11392371

Rider CV, Furr JR, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr. (Apr 2010). "Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of reproductive toxicants that disrupt common targe tissues via diverse mechanisms of toxicity". International Journal of Andrology 33: 443–62, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2048704

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiandrogen

antibiotic resistance

antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance evolves via natural selection acting upon random mutation, but it can also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange.

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant.

Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through transformation protocols. This can aid in implanting artificial genes into the microorganism. If the resistance gene is linked with the gene to be implanted, the antibiotic can be used to kill off organisms that lack the new gene.


an antibiotic (from the Ancient Greek: anti = "against", and bios = "life") is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms. It is based on a natural phenomenon, antibiosis, which means antagonistic association between an organism and the metabolic substances produced by another. Formerly only the microbes-made substances were called "antibiotics", but today all man-made, synthetic or semisynthetic compounds are called "antibiotic", which are prodused and used for the inhibition or killing microbes. We distinguish between antibacterial, antifungal, antiprozoal etc. Antibiotics, depending on the target of the antibiotic agent. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds, used to treat infections in humans and animals caused by microorganisms, to treat food or fodder to prevent fauling and infections through nutrition, etc.

microorganisms easily get resistant to antibiotics, due to a special mechanism, where the gene responsible for the antibiotic resistence moves from one organism to the other in form of mobile genetic elements, causing rapid transformation of a sensitive bacterial populations (e.g. in human body) into a resistent one.

See also antibiotic resistance


an antobody is a special fighter protein synthetized by the immune cells of the immune system. They help protect the organism from disease. The immune system prepares a special protein for each kind of "intruder" that enters the body from the outside. These "intruders" are called antigens, which may be an isolated molecule (a protein or a glycoprotein, etc.) or a part of a living cell (e.g. the building blocks of the bacterial cell wall). The fighter proteins link up with the antigens like pieces of a puzzle. Once they're linked, the antigen is inactivated or killed.


antigen binds to a specific antibody, the product of the immune-system. The interaction is similar to a „lock and key”.

antineoplastic agents

chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen.

The most common chemotherapy agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. This means that chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles. This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Newer anticancer drugs act directly against abnormal proteins in cancer cells; this is termed targeted therapy and, in the technical sense, is not chemotherapy.

The types of antineoplastic agents are the following:

1 Alkylating agents

1.1 Nitrogen mustard analogues

1.2 Alkyl sulfonates

1.3 Ethylene imines

1.4 Nitrosoureas

1.5 Epoxides

1.6 Other alkylating agents

2 Antimetabolites

2.1 Folic acid analogues

2.2 Purine analogues

2.3 Pyrimidine analogues

3 Plant alkaloids and other natural products

3.1 Vinca alkaloids and analogues

3.2 Podophyllotoxin derivatives

3.3 Colchicine derivatives

3.4 Taxanes

3.5 Other plant alkaloids and natural products

4 Cytotoxic antibiotics and related substances

4.1 Actinomycines

4.2 Anthracyclines and related substances

4.3 Other cytotoxic antibiotics

5 Other antineoplastic agents

5.1 Platinum compounds

5.2 Methylhydrazines

5.3 Monoclonal antibodies

5.4 Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy

5.5 Protein kinase inhibitors

5.6 Other antineoplastic agents

5.7 L01XY Combinations of antineoplastic agents

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATC_code_L01


antioxidant is a substance capable of slowing or preventing theoxidation of other molecules. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start radical chain reactions that damage cells and organs. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Tehrefore antioxidants are often reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid or polyphenols.

Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. This kind of oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases.

Antioxidants are widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements with the aim of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. In addition antioxidant compounds have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventing the degradation of rubber and gasoline.

AOS (Adsorbable Organic Sulfur compounds) includes only partly overlapping portions of the total concentration of dissolved organic sulfur compounds (DOS) in water. It is a group parameter used, for example, for waste water monitoring or for investigation of water quality changes along flowpaths. Lignine sulfonates and fulvic and humic acids containing sulfur, aromatic sulfonic acids and detergents are typical organic sulfur compounds in surface waters. The method for determining adsorbable organic sulfur compounds (AOS) in water/wastewater is similar to the standard method for determining AOX (DIN 38 409 - H 14). The method is based on the adsorption of sulfur-containing organic compounds on activated carbon, incineration of the loaded carbon and detection of the sulfur dioxide formed. Nowadays there are instruments to carry out the determination automatically. (Source: Schullerer, S. and Frimell, F.H. (1993) Characterization of organic sulphur compounds in surface water by ion-pair adsorption under different conditions. Analytica Chimica Acta 283, 251-257)
AOX stands for “Adsorbable Organically bound halogens" expressed as chloride, and determined according to the relevant European Standard method. AOXs are substances that are adsorbed from water onto activated carbon. They may be volatile substances like trichloromethane (chloroform), chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes or complex organic molecules like dioxins and furans. Most AOXs are chlorine-containing molecules, but bromo- and iodo-AOXs may also occur. These compounds are of industrial origin, persistent, well accumulating, and mostly carcinogenic. They can be formed during industrial processes, and also at chlorination of drinking water. Certain organohalogen compounds are discharged directly into bodies of water or waste water, e.g. pesticide residues from agriculture or components of commercial or household cleaning agents. In waste water, especially in industrial waste water AOX concentrations >1 mg/l are common. The effluents of hospitals may also contain high AOX concentrations because of the x-ray contrast materials with iodine-compounds. The acceptable limit of AOX in drinking water is 50 microgramms/l.

Principle of the European Standard method (ISO 9652:2004):

  1. Addition of activated carbon to the water sample. After the adsorption of water soluble organic compounds on the activated carbon, an elution step is applied to remove the inorganic chloride ions from the carbon by shaking with acidified nitrate solution.

  2. Combustion of the loaded carbon in oxygen stream.

  3. Absorption of the hydrogen halides produced followed by the determination of the halide ions by an argentometric titration, such as microcoulometry. Expression of the result as the mass concentration of chloride.

The detailed description of the method can be found at the following URL address: http://www.ecn.nl/docs/society/horizontal/STD310_AOX.pdf

Recently some biotests have been developed for determination of AOX.


APFO = ammoniumpentadecafluorootanoate EC Number: 223-320-4; CAS number: 3825-26-1

PFOA is used as a group name for PFOA and its salts, and PFOA is mainly produced and used as its ammonium salt, ammonium pentadecafluorootanoate (APFO). However, the perfluorooctanoate anion is the molecule of primary interest. APFO and PFOA are sometimes used interchangeably as both PFO-anion and PFOA (neutral species) exist in solution.

Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO, PFOA or C8) is a surfactant associated with the production of Teflon®, and is also present in products such as fire-fighting foams and may be formed from the microbial degradation of grease-resistant coatings applied to items such as pizza boxes and other food packages. APFO is hardly hydrolyzed, photolyzed or biodegraded under environmental conditions

It is recommended to be classified based on GHS as toxic, irritant, reprotoxic, toxic for specific target organs.

  • Carc. 2, H351
  • Repr. 1B, H360D
  • STOT RE 1, H372
  • STOT RE 2, H373
  • Acute Tox. 4, H332
  • Acute Tox. 4, H302
  • Eye Irrit. 2, H319
  • Toxic; irritant

R phrases: 40-61-48/23-48/22-20/22-36

S phrases: 53-45