2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin is herbicide used for killing broad-leafed plants. It was widely used in the agricultural industry until being banned from the 1970s due to its toxicity. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D.
2,4,5-T itself is only moderately toxic, with oral LD50 of 389 mg/kg in mice and 500 mg/kg in rats. Its toxicity is in association with the trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which contaminates the product during chemical synthesis. TCDD is reported to be extremely toxic to humans. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about 0.005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well-understood, early production facilities lacked proper temperature controls and individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world. 2,4-D is also an important synthetic auxin, a plant hormone, used in laboratories for plant tissue culture media to control and regulate plant growth and development. Its CAS-number: 95-75-7.
2000/532/EC, commission decision of 3 May 2000 on the list of wastes.
List of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC on waste and Article 1(4) of Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste.
The present list is a harmonised list of wastes. It will be periodically reviewed and if necessary revised in accordance
with Article 18 of Directive 75/442/EEC. However, the inclusion of a material in the list does not mean that the
material is a waste in all circumstances. Materials are considered to be waste only where the definition of waste in
Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC is met. Wastes included in the list are subject to the provisions of Directive 75/442/EEC except where Article 2(1)(b) of this Directive applies.
The different types of waste in the list are fully defined by the six-digit code for the waste and the respective two-digit and four-digit chapter headings. This implies that the following steps should be taken to identify a waste in the list.
As the first step, identify the source generating the waste in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 and identify the appropriate six-digit code of the waste. If no appropriate waste code can be found in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 the Chapters 13, 14 and 15 must be examined to identify the waste. If none of these waste codes apply, the waste must be identified according to Chapter 16. If the waste is not in Chapter 16 either, the 99 code (wastes not otherwise specified) must be used in the section of the list corresponding to the activity identified in step one.
Any waste marked with an asterisk (*) is considered as a hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4), first indent, of
Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, and subject to the provisions of that Directive unless Article 1(5) of that
For the purpose of this Decision, ‘dangerous substance’ means any substance that has been or will be classified as
dangerous in Directive 67/548/EEC as amended; ‘heavy metal’ means any compound of antimony, arsenic, cadmium,
chromium (VI), copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium and tin, including these metals in metallic
form, as far as these are classified as dangerous substances. If a waste is identified as hazardous by a specific or general reference to dangerous substances, the waste is hazardous only if the concentrations of those substances are such (i.e. percentage by weight) that the waste presents one or more of the properties listed in Annex III to Council Directive 91/689/EEC.
Chapters of the list: two-digit codes:
01 Wastes resulting from exploration, mining, dressing and further treatment of minerals and quarry
02 Wastes from agricultural, horticultural, hunting, fishing and aquacultural primary production, food preparation and
03 Wastes from wood processing and the production of paper, cardboard, pulp, panels and furniture
04 Wastes from the leather, fur and textile industries
05 Wastes from petroleum refining, natural gas purification and pyrolytic treatment of coal
06 Wastes from inorganic chemical processes
07 Wastes from organic chemical processes
08 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous
enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks
09 Wastes from the photographic industry
10 Inorganic wastes from thermal processes
11 Inorganic metal-containing wastes from metal treatment and the coating of metals, and non-ferrous hydrometallurgy
12 Wastes from shaping and surface treatment of metals and plastics
13 Oil wastes (except edible oils, 05 anbd 12)
14 Wastes from organic substances used as solvents (except 07 and 08)
15 Waste packaging; absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified
16 Wastes not otherwise specified in the list
17 Construction and demolition wastes (including road construction)
18 Wastes from human or animal health care and/or related research (except kitchen and restaurant wastes not arising
from immediate health care)
19 Wastes from waste treatment facilities, off-site waste water treatment plants and the water industry
20 Municipal wastes and similar commercial, industrial and institutional wastes including separately collected fractions.
directive on classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. Commission Directive 2001/59/EC of 6 August 2001 adapting to technical progress for the 28th time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances: OJEC L225, 21.8.2001, pp. 1–333.
The standard phrases are defined in Annexes III and IV of the Directive. Annex III defines phrases relating to the Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as R-phrases. Annex IV defines phrases relating to Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as S-phrases.
The appropriate standard phrases must appear on the packaging and label of the product and on its MSDS (Material Safety data Sheet). Annex I specifies the standard phrases to be used for substances that are listed there: these are obligatory.
The lists of standard phrases were last updated in 2001, and Directive 2001/59/EC provides a consolidated list in all EU languages. In general, the label on the packaging of a dangerous substance or preparation must clearly indicate the following items:
- the name of the substance; for substances listed in Annex I, the name indicated must be one of those listed in the Annex (many substances appear in the Annex under different synonyms): otherwise, the name should be "internationally recognized"
- the name, full address and telephone number of the person or company which has placed the substance on the market (manufacturer, importer or distributor);
- the danger symbols, if any;
- the standard phrases, if any; (certain exemptions are permitted)
- the EINECS number or equivalent;
- for substances listed in Annex I, the words EC label.
On 20 January 2009 the new (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures entered into force. It aligns existing EU legislation to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (GHS).
DIRECTIVE 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006, on waste.
Some important issues:
The essential objective of all provisions relating to waste management should be the protection of human health and the environment against harmful effects caused by the collection, transport, treatment, storage and tipping of waste.
Common terminology and a definition of waste are needed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management in the Community.
Effective and consistent rules on waste disposal and recovery should be applied, subject to certain exceptions, to movable property which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard.
The recovery of waste and the use of recovered materials as raw materials should be encouraged in order to conserve natural resources. It may be necessary to adopt specific rules for re‑usable waste.
In order to achieve a high level of environmental protection, Member States should, in addition to taking responsible action to ensure the disposal and recovery of waste, take measures to restrict the production of waste particularly by promoting clean technologies and products which can be recycled and re‑used, taking into consideration existing or potential market opportunities for recovered waste.
Moreover, discrepancies between Member States’ legislation with regard to waste disposal and recovery may affect the quality of the environment and the smooth operation of the internal market. It is important for the Community as a whole to become self‑sufficient in waste disposal and desirable for Member States individually to aim at such self‑sufficiency. In order to achieve those objectives, waste management plans should be drawn up in the Member States.
Movements of waste should be reduced and Member States may take the necessary measures to that end in their management plans.
To ensure a high level of protection and effective control, it is necessary to provide for authorisation and inspection
of undertakings which carry out waste disposal and recovery.
In order that waste can be monitored from its production to its final disposal, other undertakings involved with waste, such as waste collectors, carriers and brokers should also be subject to authorisation or registration and appropriate inspection.
That proportion of the costs not covered by the proceeds of treating the waste must be defrayed in accordance
with the ‘polluter pays’ principle.
2008/1/EC directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC).