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flame atomic absorption spectroscopy most frequently used technique for determination of elements; flame is applied for atomization.
fallow land

land under lay farming. It means that the land is out of crop for one year.


FAO = Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; one of the largest specialised agencies in the United Nations system and the lead agency for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and rural development. An intergovernmental organisation, FAO has 180 member countries plus one member organisation, the European Community.

See also: http://www.fao.org/

far infrared (FIR)
far space, noise
fate of inorganic pollutants in soil
fate of organic pollutants in soil

the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments, responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), veterinary products, and cosmetics.

The FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include sanitation requirements on interstate travel and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction.

The FDA is led by a Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The 21st and current Commissioner is Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg. She has served as Commissioner since February 2009.

The FDA has its headquarters at Rockville, Maryland and has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

Source: Wikipedia

See also European Food Safety Authority


foot, plural: feet is a non-SI unit of length in a number of different systems including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. Its size can vary from system to system, but in each is around a quarter to a third of a meter.

The most commonly used foot today is the international foot. There are 3 feet in a yard and 12 inches in a foot.

July 1, 1959 the length of the international yard in the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was defined as 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international foot is defined to be equal to 0.3048 meters (equivalent to 304.8 millimeters).

feetkilometers0.000 304 8
feetmeters0.304 8
feetstatute miles0.000 189 39
feetyards0.333 333 3
feet, cubicbushels0.803 563 95
feet, cubiccubic decimeters28.316 847
feet, cubiccubic inches1,728
feet, cubiccubic meters0.028 316 846 592
feet, cubiccubic yards0.037 037 04
feet, cubicdry pints51.428 09
feet, cubicdry quarts25.714 05
feet, cubicgallons7.480 519
feet, cubicgills239.376 6
feet, cubicliquid ounces957.506 5
feet, cubicliquid pints59.844 16
feet, cubicliquid quarts29.922 08
feet, cubicliters28.316 846 592
feet, cubicpecks3.214 256
feet, squareacres0.000 022 956 8
feet, squaresquare centimeters929.030 4
feet, squaresquare decimeters9.290 304
feet, squaresquare inches144
feet, squaresquare meters0.092 903 04
feet, squaresquare yards0.111 111 1
FETAX teratogeneity test

Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay − Xenopus (FETAX)

Flame Ionization Detetor, the most often used detector in gas chromatography. Suitable for detecting organic compounds.
field application
genarally the first application of a new technology on the field.
field blank, field reference

blanks are defined as matrices that have negligible or unmeasurable amounts of the substance of interest. Field blanks are prepared by transferring the analyte-free media from one vessel to another or by exposing the media to the sampling environment at the sampling site.

Capped and cleaned containers are taken to the sample collection site. Usually each sampling team should collect one field blank a day per collection apparatus; the field blank matrix should be comparable to the sample of interest.

For example a field blank water sample consist of deionized water that is carried to the sampling site and exposed to the air there so that any contamination from the air can be measured and accounted for.

Field reference sample is similar to field blanks except the bottles contain media of known analyte concentration. More costly, but have more informational content than field blank.

field demonstration
first field application of a new method or technology.
field experiment
FIFRA micocosm testing
standardised microcosm test for testing pesticides, according to the US Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of USA.
filling, package
filter dust collector
financial risk assessment in environmnetal risk management

tools to estimate (and where possible control) the financial risks related to the management of land contamination problems (Source: EUGRIS)

fine grained silt
fingerprint analysis based on chromatogram
an analysis in which the detector output - the chromatogram - is compared to chromatograms of reference materials for the identicifation of an unknown mixture or product.
firewall, IT
First World Conference on the Environment

the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference) was an international conference convened under United Nations auspices held in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5-16, 1972. It was the UN's first major conference on international environmental issues, and marked a turning point in the development of international environmental politics.

The conference was opened and addressed by the Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme and secretary-general Kurt Waldheim to discuss the state of the global environment. Attended by the representatives of 113 countries, 19 inter-governmental agencies, and more than 400 inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, it is widely recognized as the beginning of modern political and public awareness of global environmental problems.

The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution.

The Conference paved the way for further understanding of global warming, which has led to such agreements as the Kyoto Protocol
Johannesburg Declaration
Habitat International Coalition, etc.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Conference_on_the_Human_Environment

flame atom emission photometry
flame atomic absorption spectrometry
a method for elemental analysis, abbreviated as FAAS. The sample is atomised in the flame, through which radiation of a chosen wavelength (using a hollow cathode lamp) is sent. The amount of absorbed radiation is a quantitative measure for the concentration of the element to be analysed. The gas mixtures used are hydrocarbons, e.g. methane, propane, propane-butane, air/acetylene and nitrous-oxide/acetylene. The latter resulting in higher atomisation efficiencies and thus better detection limits for elements like Si, Al, Sc, Ti, V and Zr. The air/acetylene flame can be used for easy atomisable elements (e.g. As and Se). The temperature of the flame is 2300 oC, high enough for atomization of the most frequently measured 30 elements. The liquid samples are introduced by nebulization, most frequently by pneumatic nebulization, PN, for the solid samples laser ablation and electrothermal vaporization. (Source: Posta József: Atomabszorpciós spektrometria. Debreceni Egyetem, 2008, Kempelen Farkas Digitális Tankönyvtár. www.tankonyvtar.hu/kemia/atomabszorpcios-080904-63). The method is useful for elemental analysis of environmental (soil, groundwater, sludge, deposit) and waste samples.
flame fotometry
a branch of atomic spectroscopy. The atoms are excited by flame of gas (acetylene) and the emitted light is analysed. The wavelength is characteristic to the quality, the intensity to the quantity of the alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Ba), Fe, Mn and Cu. The sample solution to be analyzed is aspirated into a hydrogen-oxygen or acetylene-oxygen flame; the line emission spectrum is formed, and the line or band of interest is isolated with a monochromator and its intensity measured photoelectrically. It is a cheap and simple method for trace analysis in soil and water samples. While atomic absorption spectrometry is the most widely applied atomic spectroscopic method nowadays, flame photometry also has its advantages.
flame ionisation detector
abbreviated as FID, a most widely used detector in gas chromatography, which is able to detect the volatile organic compounds by burning them in the hydrogen flame. It measures any organic compounds except formic acid and formaldehyde which can be evaporated. The sensitivity depends on the specific carbon content of the compound.
a flammable gas is a gas having a flammable range with air at 20° C and 101.3 kPa, a flammable liquid is one with a flash point below the upper limit set in the C&L criteria, a flammable solid is a readily combustible solid (powdered, granular or pasty substance). It can be easily ignited by brief contact with an ignition source (such as a burning match) and the flame spreads rapidly. (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html)
flammability on contact with water
substances which, in contact with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or emit flammable gases in dangerous quantities. (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html)
flammable properties

according to REACH they include pyrophoricity, flammability and flammability on contact with water. The flammable properties tests are designed to allocate a substance into the appropriate hazard class. (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html)

flash point
the lowest temperature at which a volatile liquid can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a liquid"s flashpoint requires an ignition source. This is not to be confused with the autoigmition temperature, which requires no ignition source. The flash point is often used as one descriptive characteristic of liquid fuel, but it is also used to describe liquids that are not used intentionally as fuels. Flash point refers to both flammable liquids as well as combustible liquids. There are various international standards for defining each, but most agree that liquids with a flash point less than 60°C are flammable, and those above this temperature are combustible. A physico-chemical parameter required by REACH. (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html) A few examples for the flash point and autoignition temperature: gasoline -40 oC/246 oC, diesel oil 62 oC/210 oC, kerosene 38-72oC/220 oC. (wikipedia) The study does not need to be conducted if: the substance is inorganic; or the substance only contains volatile organic components with flash-points above 100°C, for aqueous solutions; or if the estimated flash-point is above 200°C; or the flash-point can be accurately predicted by interpolation from existing characterised materials.

a flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land.The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.

While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area.

Floods can also occur in rivers, when flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, since time out of mind, people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water. That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the water exceeds the cost of repeated periodic flooding.

Forrás: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floods

flood catchment
flood control reservoir
flood free bank
flood reservoir
flood risk

flood risk comes from the probabaility of flood and the extent of the damage in environmental, cultural, economical, ecological and and health areas.

EU Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks entered into force on 26 November 2007. This Directive now requires Member States to assess if all water courses and coast lines are at risk from flooding, to map the flood extent and assets and humans at risk in these areas and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce this flood risk. With this Directive also reinforces the rights of the public to access this information and to have a say in the planning process.

flood-risk work

floodwall is a construction for flood risk management to prevent cities, or other properties.

Food wall (or floodwall) is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the waters of a river or other waterway which may rise to unusual levels during seasonal or extreme weather events. Flood walls are mainly used on locations where space is scarce, such as cities or where building levees or dikes would interfere with other interests, such as existing buildings, historical architecture or commercial exploitation of embankments.

Flood walls are nowadays mainly constructed from pre-fabricated concrete elements. Flood walls often have "flood gates" which are large openings to provide passage except during periods of flooding, when they are closed. As flood walls mostly consist of relatively short elements compared to dikes, the connections between the elements are critical to the failure of flood walls.

The substantial costs of flood walls can be justified by the value of commercial property thus protected from damage caused by flooding. Flood walls are almost solely used in cities, such as Cologne, Germany, Nijmegen, Deventer and Kampen, the Netherlands and in many cities of the US.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_wall

flow time