the European Union wishes to keep citizens informed about and involved in environmental matters and to improve the application of environmental legislation by approving the Convention on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters (Århus Convention).
Council Decision 2005/370/EC of 17 February 2005 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters.
This Decision approves the Århus Convention (signed by the European Community and its Member States in 1998) on behalf of the Community.
The Convention, in force since 30 October 2001, is based on the premise that greater public awareness of and involvement in environmental matters will improve environmental protection. It is designed to help protect the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being. To this end, the Convention provides for action in three areas:
- ensuring public access to environmental information held by the public authorities;
- fostering public participation in decision-making which affects the environment;
- extending the conditions of access to justice in environmental matters.
The parties to the Convention undertake to apply the listed provisions, and must therefore:
- take the necessary legislative, regulatory and other measures;
- enable public officials and authorities to help and advise the public on access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice;
- promote environmental education and environmental awareness among the public;
- provide for recognition of and support to associations, organisations or groups promoting environmental protection.
The Convention emphasizes public participation in decision-making. This must be ensured through the authorisation procedure for certain specific activities (mainly of an industrial nature) listed in Annex I to the Convention. The final decision to authorise the activity must take due account of the outcome of the public participation.
The Convention also invites the parties to promote public participation in the preparation of environmental policies as well as standards and legislation that may have a significant effect on the environment.
Regarding access to justice, all persons who feel their rights to access to information have been impaired (request for information ignored, wrongfully refused, inadequately answered) must have access, in the appropriate circumstances, to a review procedure under national legislation.
The Community has undertaken to take the necessary measures to ensure the effective application of the Convention.
related to the abdomen, the part of the body between the chest and the hips. It includes the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and other organs.
nonliving. The abiotic part of the environment includes atmospheric gases, waters, rocks and minerals, nonliving part of soils and sediments, dead organic matter and humus in soil and sediment, dissolved inorganic and organic compounds in waters, atc. Light and temperature are also environmental factors classified as "nonliving".
a quantitaive value characterising risk. The risk of chemical substances is characterised by the Risk Quotient RQ the ratio of their Predicted Environmnetal Concentration PEC and their Predicted No Effect Concentration PNEC.
Level or harm
the absorbable dose represents that present on or in the skin following washing.
mass of test substance reaching the receptor fluid or systemic circulation within a specified period of time.
in chemical engineering an absorber is an equipment in which a gas is absorbed by contact with a liquid.
In electronics, it is a material or device that takes up and dissipates radiated energy; may be used to shield an object from the energy, prevent reflection of the energy, determine the nature of the radiation, or selectively transmit one or more components of the radiation.
The surface on a solar collector that absorbs the solar radiation is also an absorber.
In nuclear technologies absorber is a material that absorbs neutrons or other ionizing radiation.
absorption in chemistry in chemical engineering means the absorption of particles of gas or liquid in liquid or solid material. An other term is for a more general process is sorption, which do not distinguish between absorption and adsorption, but integrates the two.
The process of absorption can be described with the absorption coefficient, which gives the amount of gas or vapour beeing able to absorb in 1cm3 liquid or solid. Absorption coefficient is higher on low temperature and high pressure, than on high temperature and low pressure.
Environmental technologies use absorption 1. for contaminated soil gas treatment, 2. for the absorption of the gaseous phase desorbed from contaminated soil surface during the application of a thermal desoption technology, 3. for the treatment of off-gases from incineration or pirolysis of contaminated solid waste or soil.
Biology and biotechnology uses the term absorption too: menas the process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs. Absorption by skin is a route by which substances/toxic chemical substances can enter the body through the skin. Toxicologists and pharmacologists investigate absorption of drugs in body. Absorption of nutrients by the small intestine is part of the human digestion process.
Absorption of electromagnetic radiation, light, sound, solar energy and ionisation radiation is possible by materials or devices, which are named absorbers.
the class of pesticides used to kill mites and ticks. Another name is miticide.
in other name accelerated solvent extraction, abbreviated as ASE, a sample preparation technique in determination of POP (Persistent Orcanic Pollutants) that combines elevated temperature and pressure with solvents to achieve fast and efficient removal of components of interest from any solid sample (soil, sediment, food, textile, waste, biological sample, ash, etc.). The solubility of compounds is enhanced at elevated temperature, e.g. rising the temperature from 50 °C to 150 °C the solubility of anthracene is increased 13 fold resulting in enhanced diffusion as well. The high pressure makes it possible to work on temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent and helps to the solvent to enter into the pores of the sample. ASE has been demonstrated to be equivalent to existing extraction methodologies, such as Soxhlet extraction. (Source: MOKKA database, sheet No. 582)
accuracy is how close a numerical measure is to its actual value.
acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme present in nerve tissue, muscles and red blood cells that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)to choline and acetic acid, allowing neural transmission across synapses to occur.
The inhibition of acethylcholinesterase by an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor substance results in an increase in the level and life-time of acethylcholin in the neuromuscular junction resulting in prolonged muscle contraction.
The compound or group of compounds of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (e.g., organophosphorus compounds) block the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
In luck of cholinestherase the repeated and unchecked firing of electrical signals can cause uncontrolled, rapid twitching of some muscles, paralyzed breathing, convulsions, and in extreme cases, death. Workers, farmers, gardeners using this kind of pesticides should use protective wear and tools not to be in contacts with the pesticide through skin or eye or swallowing.
Based on this activity acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used as pesticides. Any pesticide that can bind, or inhibit, cholinesterase, making it unable to breakdown acetylcholine, is called a "cholinesterase inhibitor," or "anticholinesterase agent." The two main classes of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are the organophosphates (OPs) and the carbamates (CMs). Some newer chemicals, such as the chlorinated derivatives of nicotine can also affect the cholinesterase enzyme.
Organophosphate insecticides include some of the most toxic pesticides. They can enter the human body through skin absorption, inhalation and ingestion. They can affect cholinesterase activity in both red blood cells and in blood plasma, and can act directly, or in combination with other enzymes, on cholinesterase in the body. The following list includes some of the most commonly used OPs:
- acephate (Orthene)
- azinphos-methyl (Guthion)
- carbofuran (Furadan, F formulation)
- carbophenothion (Trithion)
- chlorfenvinphos (Birlane)
- chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)
- coumaphos (Co-Ral)
- crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Ciovap)
- crufomate (Ruelene)
- demeton (Systox)
- diazinon (Spectracide)
- dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)
- dicrotophos (Bidrin)
- dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
- dioxathion (Delnav)
- disulfoton (Di-Syston)
- ethoprop (Mocap)
- fenamiphos (Nemacur)
- fenitrothion (Sumithion)fensulfothion (Dasanit)
- fenthion (Baytex, Tiguvon)
- fonofos (Dyfonate)
- isofenfos (Oftanol, Amaze)
- malathion (Cythion)
- methamidophos (Monitor)
- methidathion (Supracide)
- methyl parathio
- mevinphos (Phosdrin)
- naled (Dibrom)
- oxydemeton-methyl(Meta systox-R)
- parathion (Niran, Phoskil)
- phorate (Thimet)
- phosalone (Zolonc)
- phosmet (Irnidan, Prolate)
- phosphamidon (Dimecron)
- temephos (Abate)
- terbufos (Counter)
- tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon, Ravap)
- trichlorfon (Dylox, Neguvon)
Carbamates, like organophosphates, vary widely in toxicity and work by inhibiting plasma cholinesterase. Some examples of carbamates are listed below:
- aldicarb (Temik)
- bendiocarb (Ficam)
- carbaryl (Sevin)
- formetanate (Carzol)
- methiocarb (Mesurol)
- methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
- oxamyl (Vydate)
- pinmicarb (Pirimor)
- propoxur (Baygon)
one of the most important organic anhydrides, used to manufacture pain-relieving pharmaceuticals (aspirin, paracetamol), modified starches, emulsifiers, liquid crystal polymers, dyestuffs and cellulose acetate, a major ingredient in photographic films and textiles.
acetone is an organic solvent of industrial and chemical significance, acetone is capable of dissolving many fats, resins and cellulose esters. It is used extensively in the manufacture of artificial fibres and explosives, as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent for vinyl and acrylic resins, lacquers, paints, inks, cosmetics (such as nail polish remover), and varnishes. It is used in the preparation of paper coatings, adhesives, and is also employed as a starting material in the synthesis of many compounds.
acid rain is a generic term used for precipitation that contains an high concentration of sulfuric and nitric acid. These acids form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water. Acidified particulate matter in the atmosphere is deposited by precipitation onto a surface, often eroding the surface away. This precipitation generally has a pH less than 5 and sometimes much lower depending on the concentration of acidic components. Acid rain has negative impacts on the environment and human health.
the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions See also acid rain
see as soil acidification
acre is a unit of area. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land. Conversion to other area-units:
|acres||ares||40.468 564 224|
|acres||hectares||0.404 685 642 24|
|acres||square kilometers||0.004 046 856 422 4|
|acres||square meters||4,046.856 422 4|
|acres||square miles (statute)||0.001 562 50|
active chlorine can be a single chlorine atom that is a radical and therefore highly reactive. It can also be a molecule containing chlorine that is reactive.
Active chlorine's most notable role in atmospheric chemistry is in catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere and the accumulation of active chlorine at the earth's polar stratosphere during the polar night that leads to major ozone hole formation during the spring.
Active chlorine in water serves as disinfectant for drinking water production, and for swimming pool waters. It is also used in general washing and bleaching of food and textile and for washing of industrial tanks.
active transport is the pumping of ions or molecules across a cell membrane with the help of special enzymes, the so called transport proteins, which are built in or bound to the membrane of the cell. Active transport is going into the opposite direction than simple diffusion. While diffusion is a spontaneous process driven by the concentration-difference between two sides of the cell membrane. Molecules or ions are actively transported into the opposite direction (toward the higher concentration side of the memebrane) than by diffusion, so that active transport requires energy.
Active transport in the cells is able to pump molecules through membranes into the higher concentration space, e.g. more and more hydrogen ions into the stomach to reach a very acidic pH value necessary for digestion.
Nutrient uptake is ensured by active trasnport, even if the nutrient ions and molecules are in very low concentration outside the cell.
Ion pumps create charge differences and charge gradients in cell organelles.
Active transport is able to restrict the diffusion of hazardous or any unwanted ions and molecules into the cell.
Active transport may happen by direct energy uptake with the help of the transmembrane enzymes transporting the ions and molecules and having ATP-ase activity at the same time. The other mechanism of molecular trasport utilises the electrochemical potential difference, which is created by pumping ions (by energy consuming active transport) out of cells.
Some toxins e.g. digitalis inhibit the active transport of the cells.
means all manufacturers and/or importers and/or downstream users in a supply chain.
Acute disease is a disease with either or both of:
- a rapid onset, as in acute infection
- a short course (as opposed to a chronic course).
Subacute is defined as between acute and chronic. Chronic is meaning a long term condition.
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours). To be described as acute toxicity, the adverse effects should occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance.
Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period (months or years).
Acute toxicity test: a short term toxicity or other adverse effect measuring method.
Acute exposure: short term exposure to any dangeres substance or agent.
called also ACR, the ratio of acute and chronic toxicty: knowing ACR the level ot concentration of a toxicant's acute toxicity can be converted into chronic toxicity.
cancer of the bone marrow cells that can progress quickly.
a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells - called lymphoblasts - are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is frequent in childhood. Main causes mey be mutaganic agents or chemical substances.
a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours.
an estimate of a chemical substance, expressed on a bodyweight basis, to which a human population (including sensitive subgroups) can be exposed over a short period of time (24 hours or less), without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.
short term risk of chemical substances on humans or ecosystems.
acute systemic toxicity testing is the estimation of the human hazard potential of a substance by determining its systemic toxicity in a test system (currently animals) following an acute exposure. Its assessment has traditionally been based on the median lethal dose (LD50) value - an estimate of the dose of a test substance that kills 50% of the test animals. For a substance to have systemic toxic effects it must be absorbed by the body and distributed by the circulation to sites in the body where it exerts toxic effects. The liver may transform a circulating drug or chemical to another form (biotransformation), and this new metabolite may be the one causing the observed toxicity.
Acute systemic toxicity is assessed following oral, dermal, and/or inhalation exposure(s) - depending upon the anticipated routes of human exposure to the substance. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS), which is scheduled for implementation in 2008, defines acute toxicity as "those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours"
UNECE, 2004, p. 109.
short term toxicity. The adverse effects of chemical substances which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time.
In animal testings "acute" is the toxicity, when the adverse effects occurs within 14 days of the administration of the substance. In ecotoxicity testings acute toxicity is defined as a period of time shorter, than the generation time of the testorganism. The endpoints used for the quantitative characterisation of acute toxicity are: EC50, LC50 or ED50 and LD50 values.
Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period months or years.
acute toxicity concerns the adverse effects, which may result from a single exposure or multiple exposures within 24 hours to a substance in toxicity tests. Exposure relates to the oral, dermal or inhalation routes. Assessment of the acute toxic potential of a chemical is necessary to determine the adverse health effects that might occur following accidental or deliberate short-term exposure: the types of toxic effects, their time of onset, duration and severity, the dose-response relationships, and the sex differences in response. The investigated damages can be clinical signs of toxicity, abnormal body weight changes, and/or pathological changes in organs and tissues, which in some cases may result in death.
a drug that fights viruses. It is used to prevent or treat infections you may get when your immune system is not working well. This can happen when cancer treatment weakens the immune system by causing a low white blood cell count.
It is acycloguanosine (ACV), a guanosine analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Cyclovir, Herpex, Acivir, Acivirax, Zovirax, and Xovir. One of the most commonly used antiviral drugs, it is primarily used for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections, as well as in the treatment of Varicella zoster (chickenpox) and Herpes zoster.
Acyclovir differs from previous nucleoside analogues in containing only a partial nucleoside structure: the sugar ring is replaced with an open-chain structure. It is selectively converted into acyclo-guanosine monophosphate (acyclo-GMP) by viral thymidine kinase, which is far more effective (3000 times) in phosphorylation than cellular thymidine kinase. Subsequently, the monophosphate form is further phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form, acyclo-guanosine triphosphate (acyclo-GTP), by cellular kinases. Acyclo-GTP has approximately 100 times greater affinity for viral than cellular polymerase. As a substrate, acyclo-GTP is incorporated into viral DNA, resulting in premature chain termination. Although acyclovir resembles a nucleotide, it has no 3' end. Therefore, after its incorporation into a growing DNA strand, no further nucleotides can be added to this strand. It has also been shown that viral enzymes cannot remove acyclo-GTP from the chain, which results in inhibition of further activity of DNA polymerase. Acyclo-GTP is fairly rapidly metabolised within the cell, possibly by cellular phosphatases.
In sum, aciclovir can be considered a prodrug: it is administered in an inactive (or less active) form and is metabolised into a more active species after administration.
adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat. This process takes place over many generations, and is one of the basic phenomena of biology.
The term adaptation may also refer to a feature which is especially important for an organism's survival. Such adaptations are produced in a variable population by the better suited forms reproducing more successfully, that is, by natural selection.
Microorganism, due to their short generation time may succesfully be adapted to new environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity, nutrient supply, toxic contaminants, etc.
The genom of the microorganisms is very versatile: their adaptive genes, which can be swithched on, when necessary, the frequent mutations and the horizontal gene-transfer between the members of the population and the whole microbial community makes the soil microbes flexible and possible to adapt to the utilisation of new substrates (also soil contaminants) and to become resistant to toxic chemical substances. In the soil biofilms, where microorganism are living strongly realted to each-other, special forms of horizontal gene transfer may exist, and the genes necessary fir survival can be dispersed in the community with the help of mobile genetical elements, such as plasmids, jumping genes, phages, etc.
The adaptive behaviour of the soil microorganisms makes possible to eliminate soil contaminants and prevent Earth from continuously increasing contaminant-concentrations in soils.
adaptive enzymes are inducible enzymes expressed only under conditions in which it is clear of adaptive value, as opposed to a constitutive enzyme which is produced all the time.
Adaptive enzymes are good examples for the efficient functioning of the microbial, plant and animal cells: they do not work (do not synthetize molecules) if not necessary.
To switch-in the production of an adaptive enzyme there is a special mechanism working in the cell: a regulation system with positive or negative feed-back.
The best known adaptive enzyme is the beta-galactosidase, an ezyme which is part of the complex lactase enzyme responsible for the degradation of lactose, the sugar of the milk. This enzyme is produced only in the presence of lactose. Lactose itself is the inductor molecule for the production of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, necessary to split from each other the two sugar-molecules of the disaccharide lactose. The meachanism of enzyme induction is based on the competitive linkage of lactose and the regulatory gene (operator) to the inhibitor molecule.
within the context of REACH, an additive is a compond that has been intentionally added during the manufacturing process to stabilise the substance. Under other legislation additive can have other functions, e.g. pH-regulator or colouring agent.In REACH the term "additive" can also have other meanings outside the context of substance identification, for instance in relation to food or feed additives See REACH, article 2.
the integrated effect of more toxic substances, mixtures of chemical substances, xenobiotica or drogs, which can be quantified as the sum of the effects of the components, contrary to not additive effects, such as antagonism or sinergism.
an amendment-enhanced bioremediation technology for the treatment of POPs involves the creation of sequential anoxic and oxic conditions. The treatment process involves the following:
1. Addition of solid phase DARAMEND® organic soil amendment of specific particle size distribution and nutrient profile, zero valent iron, and water to produce anoxic conditions.
2. Periodic tilling of the soil to promote oxic conditions.
3. Repetition of the anoxic-oxic cycle until the desired cleanup goals are achieved.
The addition of DARAMEND® organic amendment, zero valent iron, and water stimulates the biological depletion of oxygen, generating strong reducing anoxic conditions within the soil matrix. The diffusion of replacement oxygen into the soil matrix is prevented by near saturation of the soil pores with water. The depletion of oxygen creates a low redox potential, which promotes dechlorination of organochlorine compounds. A cover may be used to control the moisture content, increase the temperature of the soil matrix and eliminate runon/run off.
The soil matrix consisting of contaminated soil and the amendments is left undisturbed for the duration of the anoxic phase of treatment cycle typically 1-2 weeks. In the oxic phase of each cycle, periodic tilling of the soil increases diffusion of oxygen to microsites and distribution of irrigation water in the soil. The dechlorination products formed during the anoxic degradation process are subsequently removed trough aerobic oxic biodegradation processes, initiated by the passive air drying and tilling of the soil to promote aerobic conditions.
Addition of DARAMEND® and the anoxic-oxic cycle continues until the desired cleanup goals are achieved. The frequency of irrigation is determined by weekly monitoring of soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture is maintained within a specific range below its water holding capacity. Maintenance of soil moisture content within a specified range facilitates rapid growth of an active microbial population and prevents the generation of leachate. The amount of DARAMEND® added in the second and subsequent treatment cycles is generally less than the amount added during the first cycle.
The additive enhanced bioremediation was successfully applied for toxaphene and DDT contaminated soil and sediment.
within the context of REACH, an additive is a compound that has been intentionally added during the manufacturing process to stabilise the substance. Under other legislation additive can have other functions, e.g. pH-regulator or colouring agent.
In REACH the term "additive" can also have other meanings outside the context of substance identification, for instance in relation to food or feed additives. (See REACH, article 2)
(Source: REACH Glossary)
adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in cells that line the inside of organs. These organs make substances like hormones or milk. Most breast cancers are of this type. They begin in cells that make milk or in the cells that drain the breast milk.
See also breast cancer.
adjuvant is substance, which is added to a formulated pesticide product to act as a wetting or spreading agent, sticker, penetrant, or emulsifier in order to enhance the physical characteristics of the product.
European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways.
The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN) was done at Geneva on 26 May 2000 on the occassion of a Diplomatic Conference held under the joint auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR). It entered into force on 29 February 2008.
ADN consists of a main legal text (the Agreement itself) and annexed Regulations and aims at:
(i) ensuring a high level of safety of international carriage of dangerous goods by inland waterways;
(ii) contributing effectively to the protection of the environment, by preventing any pollution resulting from accidents or incidents during such carriage; and
(iii) facilitating transport operations and promoting international trade in dangerous goods.
ADN 2009 is a consolidated version which takes account of these updates and is applicable as from 28 February 2009.
adrenaline, also called epinephrine, is a hormone and neurotransmitter. In stress situation it increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels and dilates air passages and participates in the response of the sympathetic nervous system. Chemically it is a phenyl-ethyl-amine, a special monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from phenylalanine and tyrosine.
a drug that kills cancer cells by stopping their growth. It can also make it hard for cancer cells to fix damage. It is a type of chemotherapy.
Brand name: Adriamycin
Chemical name: Doxorubicin
Class: anthracycline chemotherapy.
Doxil, daunorubicin, Ellence, and mitoxantrone are other anthracyclines.
How it works: Anthracyclines kill cancer cells by damaging their genes and interfering with their reproduction.
Uses: adriamycin usually is given in combination with other chemotherapy medicines. It's typically used: after surgery to reduce the risk of early-stage breast cancer coming back before surgery to shrink large advanced-stage breast cancer tumors to treat advanced-stage breast cancer
How it's given: adriamycin is given intravenously.
Additional information: Adriamycin can have a toxic effect on the heart. You should be tested for heart problems before starting to take Adriamycin and should be continuously monitored for developing problems during treatment.
- low white blood cell count
- increased risk of bleeding from low platelet count
- appetite changes
- nail changes
- hair loss
- mouth sores
- heart problems
- hand-foot syndrome
- irregular periods -- this can include temporary cessation (usually resume after medication is completed) or permanent cessation of menstrual periods depending on your age and other factors
See also: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682221.html