absorption in chemistry in chemical engineering means the absorption of particles of gas or liquid in liquid or solid material. An other term is for a more general process is sorption, which do not distinguish between absorption and adsorption, but integrates the two.
The process of absorption can be described with the absorption coefficient, which gives the amount of gas or vapour beeing able to absorb in 1cm3 liquid or solid. Absorption coefficient is higher on low temperature and high pressure, than on high temperature and low pressure.
Environmental technologies use absorption 1. for contaminated soil gas treatment, 2. for the absorption of the gaseous phase desorbed from contaminated soil surface during the application of a thermal desoption technology, 3. for the treatment of off-gases from incineration or pirolysis of contaminated solid waste or soil.
Biology and biotechnology uses the term absorption too: menas the process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs. Absorption by skin is a route by which substances/toxic chemical substances can enter the body through the skin. Toxicologists and pharmacologists investigate absorption of drugs in body. Absorption of nutrients by the small intestine is part of the human digestion process.
Absorption of electromagnetic radiation, light, sound, solar energy and ionisation radiation is possible by materials or devices, which are named absorbers.