regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.
1272/2008 regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.
REACH is the Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU). REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment.
In principle REACH applies to all chemicals: not only chemicals used in industrial processes but also in our day-to-day life, for example in cleaning products, paints as well as in articles such as clothes, furniture and electrical appliances.
The aims of REACH are to:
- Improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals
- Enhance the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry, a key sector for the economy of the EU
- Promote alternative methods for the assessment of hazards of substances
- Ensure the free circulation of substances on the internal market of the European Union.
directive 1999/45/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 31 May 1999, concerning the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations.
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin is herbicide used for killing broad-leafed plants. It was widely used in the agricultural industry until being banned from the 1970s due to its toxicity. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D.
2,4,5-T itself is only moderately toxic, with oral LD50 of 389 mg/kg in mice and 500 mg/kg in rats. Its toxicity is in association with the trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which contaminates the product during chemical synthesis. TCDD is reported to be extremely toxic to humans. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about 0.005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well-understood, early production facilities lacked proper temperature controls and individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world. 2,4-D is also an important synthetic auxin, a plant hormone, used in laboratories for plant tissue culture media to control and regulate plant growth and development. Its CAS-number: 95-75-7.
2000/532/EC, commission decision of 3 May 2000 on the list of wastes.
List of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC on waste and Article 1(4) of Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste.
The present list is a harmonised list of wastes. It will be periodically reviewed and if necessary revised in accordance
with Article 18 of Directive 75/442/EEC. However, the inclusion of a material in the list does not mean that the
material is a waste in all circumstances. Materials are considered to be waste only where the definition of waste in
Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC is met. Wastes included in the list are subject to the provisions of Directive 75/442/EEC except where Article 2(1)(b) of this Directive applies.
The different types of waste in the list are fully defined by the six-digit code for the waste and the respective two-digit and four-digit chapter headings. This implies that the following steps should be taken to identify a waste in the list.
As the first step, identify the source generating the waste in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 and identify the appropriate six-digit code of the waste. If no appropriate waste code can be found in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 the Chapters 13, 14 and 15 must be examined to identify the waste. If none of these waste codes apply, the waste must be identified according to Chapter 16. If the waste is not in Chapter 16 either, the 99 code (wastes not otherwise specified) must be used in the section of the list corresponding to the activity identified in step one.
Any waste marked with an asterisk (*) is considered as a hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4), first indent, of
Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, and subject to the provisions of that Directive unless Article 1(5) of that
For the purpose of this Decision, ‘dangerous substance’ means any substance that has been or will be classified as
dangerous in Directive 67/548/EEC as amended; ‘heavy metal’ means any compound of antimony, arsenic, cadmium,
chromium (VI), copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium and tin, including these metals in metallic
form, as far as these are classified as dangerous substances. If a waste is identified as hazardous by a specific or general reference to dangerous substances, the waste is hazardous only if the concentrations of those substances are such (i.e. percentage by weight) that the waste presents one or more of the properties listed in Annex III to Council Directive 91/689/EEC.
Chapters of the list: two-digit codes:
01 Wastes resulting from exploration, mining, dressing and further treatment of minerals and quarry
02 Wastes from agricultural, horticultural, hunting, fishing and aquacultural primary production, food preparation and
03 Wastes from wood processing and the production of paper, cardboard, pulp, panels and furniture
04 Wastes from the leather, fur and textile industries
05 Wastes from petroleum refining, natural gas purification and pyrolytic treatment of coal
06 Wastes from inorganic chemical processes
07 Wastes from organic chemical processes
08 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous
enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks
09 Wastes from the photographic industry
10 Inorganic wastes from thermal processes
11 Inorganic metal-containing wastes from metal treatment and the coating of metals, and non-ferrous hydrometallurgy
12 Wastes from shaping and surface treatment of metals and plastics
13 Oil wastes (except edible oils, 05 anbd 12)
14 Wastes from organic substances used as solvents (except 07 and 08)
15 Waste packaging; absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified
16 Wastes not otherwise specified in the list
17 Construction and demolition wastes (including road construction)
18 Wastes from human or animal health care and/or related research (except kitchen and restaurant wastes not arising
from immediate health care)
19 Wastes from waste treatment facilities, off-site waste water treatment plants and the water industry
20 Municipal wastes and similar commercial, industrial and institutional wastes including separately collected fractions.
directive on classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. Commission Directive 2001/59/EC of 6 August 2001 adapting to technical progress for the 28th time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances: OJEC L225, 21.8.2001, pp. 1–333.
The danger symbols are defined in Annex II of the directive. A consolidated list with translations into other EU languages can be found in Directive 2001/59/EC.
The standard phrases are defined in Annexes III and IV of the Directive. Annex III defines phrases relating to the Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as R-phrases. Annex IV defines phrases relating to Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as S-phrases.
The appropriate standard phrases must appear on the packaging and label of the product and on its MSDS (Material Safety data Sheet). Annex I specifies the standard phrases to be used for substances that are listed there: these are obligatory.
The lists of standard phrases were last updated in 2001, and Directive 2001/59/EC provides a consolidated list in all EU languages. In general, the label on the packaging of a dangerous substance or preparation must clearly indicate the following items:
- the name of the substance; for substances listed in Annex I, the name indicated must be one of those listed in the Annex (many substances appear in the Annex under different synonyms): otherwise, the name should be "internationally recognized"
- the name, full address and telephone number of the person or company which has placed the substance on the market (manufacturer, importer or distributor);
- the danger symbols, if any;
- the standard phrases, if any; (certain exemptions are permitted)
- the EINECS number or equivalent;
- for substances listed in Annex I, the words EC label.
On 20 January 2009 the new (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures entered into force. It aligns existing EU legislation to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (GHS).
Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001L0059:EN:NOT and
DIRECTIVE 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006, on waste.
Some important issues:
The essential objective of all provisions relating to waste management should be the protection of human health and the environment against harmful effects caused by the collection, transport, treatment, storage and tipping of waste.
Common terminology and a definition of waste are needed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management in the Community.
Effective and consistent rules on waste disposal and recovery should be applied, subject to certain exceptions, to movable property which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard.
The recovery of waste and the use of recovered materials as raw materials should be encouraged in order to conserve natural resources. It may be necessary to adopt specific rules for re‑usable waste.
In order to achieve a high level of environmental protection, Member States should, in addition to taking responsible action to ensure the disposal and recovery of waste, take measures to restrict the production of waste particularly by promoting clean technologies and products which can be recycled and re‑used, taking into consideration existing or potential market opportunities for recovered waste.
Moreover, discrepancies between Member States’ legislation with regard to waste disposal and recovery may affect the quality of the environment and the smooth operation of the internal market. It is important for the Community as a whole to become self‑sufficient in waste disposal and desirable for Member States individually to aim at such self‑sufficiency. In order to achieve those objectives, waste management plans should be drawn up in the Member States.
Movements of waste should be reduced and Member States may take the necessary measures to that end in their management plans.
To ensure a high level of protection and effective control, it is necessary to provide for authorisation and inspection
of undertakings which carry out waste disposal and recovery.
In order that waste can be monitored from its production to its final disposal, other undertakings involved with waste, such as waste collectors, carriers and brokers should also be subject to authorisation or registration and appropriate inspection.
That proportion of the costs not covered by the proceeds of treating the waste must be defrayed in accordance
with the ‘polluter pays’ principle.
2008/1/EC directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC).
Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulation and administrative provision relatingto the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.
Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are regulated by the Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market lays down rules and procedures for approval of the active substances at EU-level and for the authorisation at Member State level of plant protection products (PPPs) containing these substances. This Directive states that substances cannot be used in plant protection products unless they are included in a positive EU list. Once a substance is included in the positive list Member States may authorise the use of products containing them.
Pesticides residues in food are regulated by Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. The legislation covers the setting, monitoring and control of pesticides residues in products of plant and animal origin that may arise from their use in plant protection.
Both Directive 91/414 on the placing on the market of plant protection products and Regulation 396/2005 on pesticide residues in food and feed aim at a high level of protection of human health and the environment.
directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 february 1998, concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market.
Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, put up in the form in which they are supplied to the user, intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, prevent the action of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
Harmful is an organism which has an unwanted presence or a detrimental effect for humans, their activities or the products they use or produce, or for animals or for the environment.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1451/2007 of 4 December 2007 on the second phase of the 10-year work programme referred to in Article 16(2) of Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Pursuant to Directive 98/8/EC, Member States may only authorise the placing on the market of biocidal products containing active substances included in Annex I, to that Directive.
Biocidal products containing active substances listed in Annex II to the Regulation 1451/2007 for which a decision was taken not to include these active substances for certain or all of their notified product types in Annex I (or IA) to Directive
98/8/EC, shall no longer be placed on the market.
Annex I and Annex II list can be find in: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/legislation/2007R1451EC.pdf
Sourcec: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/legislation/1998L0008EC.pdf, and
the European Union wishes to keep citizens informed about and involved in environmental matters and to improve the application of environmental legislation by approving the Convention on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters (Århus Convention).
Council Decision 2005/370/EC of 17 February 2005 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters.
This Decision approves the Århus Convention (signed by the European Community and its Member States in 1998) on behalf of the Community.
The Convention, in force since 30 October 2001, is based on the premise that greater public awareness of and involvement in environmental matters will improve environmental protection. It is designed to help protect the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being. To this end, the Convention provides for action in three areas:
- ensuring public access to environmental information held by the public authorities;
- fostering public participation in decision-making which affects the environment;
- extending the conditions of access to justice in environmental matters.
The parties to the Convention undertake to apply the listed provisions, and must therefore:
- take the necessary legislative, regulatory and other measures;
- enable public officials and authorities to help and advise the public on access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice;
- promote environmental education and environmental awareness among the public;
- provide for recognition of and support to associations, organisations or groups promoting environmental protection.
The Convention emphasizes public participation in decision-making. This must be ensured through the authorisation procedure for certain specific activities (mainly of an industrial nature) listed in Annex I to the Convention. The final decision to authorise the activity must take due account of the outcome of the public participation.
The Convention also invites the parties to promote public participation in the preparation of environmental policies as well as standards and legislation that may have a significant effect on the environment.
Regarding access to justice, all persons who feel their rights to access to information have been impaired (request for information ignored, wrongfully refused, inadequately answered) must have access, in the appropriate circumstances, to a review procedure under national legislation.
The Community has undertaken to take the necessary measures to ensure the effective application of the Convention.
related to the abdomen, the part of the body between the chest and the hips. It includes the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and other organs.
nonliving. The abiotic part of the environment includes atmospheric gases, waters, rocks and minerals, nonliving part of soils and sediments, dead organic matter and humus in soil and sediment, dissolved inorganic and organic compounds in waters, atc. Light and temperature are also environmental factors classified as "nonliving".
a quantitaive value characterising risk. The risk of chemical substances is characterised by the Risk Quotient RQ the ratio of their Predicted Environmnetal Concentration PEC and their Predicted No Effect Concentration PNEC.
The level of harm according to the risk value is the following:
Level or harm
the absorbable dose represents that present on or in the skin following washing.
mass of test substance reaching the receptor fluid or systemic circulation within a specified period of time.
in chemical engineering an absorber is an equipment in which a gas is absorbed by contact with a liquid.
In electronics, it is a material or device that takes up and dissipates radiated energy; may be used to shield an object from the energy, prevent reflection of the energy, determine the nature of the radiation, or selectively transmit one or more components of the radiation.
The surface on a solar collector that absorbs the solar radiation is also an absorber.
In nuclear technologies absorber is a material that absorbs neutrons or other ionizing radiation.
absorption in chemistry in chemical engineering means the absorption of particles of gas or liquid in liquid or solid material. An other term is for a more general process is sorption, which do not distinguish between absorption and adsorption, but integrates the two.
The process of absorption can be described with the absorption coefficient, which gives the amount of gas or vapour beeing able to absorb in 1cm3 liquid or solid. Absorption coefficient is higher on low temperature and high pressure, than on high temperature and low pressure.
Environmental technologies use absorption 1. for contaminated soil gas treatment, 2. for the absorption of the gaseous phase desorbed from contaminated soil surface during the application of a thermal desoption technology, 3. for the treatment of off-gases from incineration or pirolysis of contaminated solid waste or soil.
Biology and biotechnology uses the term absorption too: menas the process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs. Absorption by skin is a route by which substances/toxic chemical substances can enter the body through the skin. Toxicologists and pharmacologists investigate absorption of drugs in body. Absorption of nutrients by the small intestine is part of the human digestion process.
Absorption of electromagnetic radiation, light, sound, solar energy and ionisation radiation is possible by materials or devices, which are named absorbers.
the class of pesticides used to kill mites and ticks. Another name is miticide.
in other name accelerated solvent extraction, abbreviated as ASE, a sample preparation technique in determination of POP (Persistent Orcanic Pollutants) that combines elevated temperature and pressure with solvents to achieve fast and efficient removal of components of interest from any solid sample (soil, sediment, food, textile, waste, biological sample, ash, etc.). The solubility of compounds is enhanced at elevated temperature, e.g. rising the temperature from 50 °C to 150 °C the solubility of anthracene is increased 13 fold resulting in enhanced diffusion as well. The high pressure makes it possible to work on temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent and helps to the solvent to enter into the pores of the sample. ASE has been demonstrated to be equivalent to existing extraction methodologies, such as Soxhlet extraction. (Source: MOKKA database, sheet No. 582)
accuracy is how close a numerical measure is to its actual value.
acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme present in nerve tissue, muscles and red blood cells that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)to choline and acetic acid, allowing neural transmission across synapses to occur.
The inhibition of acethylcholinesterase by an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor substance results in an increase in the level and life-time of acethylcholin in the neuromuscular junction resulting in prolonged muscle contraction.
The compound or group of compounds of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (e.g., organophosphorus compounds) block the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
In luck of cholinestherase the repeated and unchecked firing of electrical signals can cause uncontrolled, rapid twitching of some muscles, paralyzed breathing, convulsions, and in extreme cases, death. Workers, farmers, gardeners using this kind of pesticides should use protective wear and tools not to be in contacts with the pesticide through skin or eye or swallowing.
Based on this activity acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used as pesticides. Any pesticide that can bind, or inhibit, cholinesterase, making it unable to breakdown acetylcholine, is called a "cholinesterase inhibitor," or "anticholinesterase agent." The two main classes of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are the organophosphates (OPs) and the carbamates (CMs). Some newer chemicals, such as the chlorinated derivatives of nicotine can also affect the cholinesterase enzyme.
Organophosphate insecticides include some of the most toxic pesticides. They can enter the human body through skin absorption, inhalation and ingestion. They can affect cholinesterase activity in both red blood cells and in blood plasma, and can act directly, or in combination with other enzymes, on cholinesterase in the body. The following list includes some of the most commonly used OPs:
- acephate (Orthene)
- azinphos-methyl (Guthion)
- carbofuran (Furadan, F formulation)
- carbophenothion (Trithion)
- chlorfenvinphos (Birlane)
- chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)
- coumaphos (Co-Ral)
- crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Ciovap)
- crufomate (Ruelene)
- demeton (Systox)
- diazinon (Spectracide)
- dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)
- dicrotophos (Bidrin)
- dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
- dioxathion (Delnav)
- disulfoton (Di-Syston)
- ethoprop (Mocap)
- fenamiphos (Nemacur)
- fenitrothion (Sumithion)fensulfothion (Dasanit)
- fenthion (Baytex, Tiguvon)
- fonofos (Dyfonate)
- isofenfos (Oftanol, Amaze)
- malathion (Cythion)
- methamidophos (Monitor)
- methidathion (Supracide)
- methyl parathio
- mevinphos (Phosdrin)
- naled (Dibrom)
- oxydemeton-methyl(Meta systox-R)
- parathion (Niran, Phoskil)
- phorate (Thimet)
- phosalone (Zolonc)
- phosmet (Irnidan, Prolate)
- phosphamidon (Dimecron)
- temephos (Abate)
- terbufos (Counter)
- tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon, Ravap)
- trichlorfon (Dylox, Neguvon)
Carbamates, like organophosphates, vary widely in toxicity and work by inhibiting plasma cholinesterase. Some examples of carbamates are listed below:
- aldicarb (Temik)
- bendiocarb (Ficam)
- carbaryl (Sevin)
- formetanate (Carzol)
- methiocarb (Mesurol)
- methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
- oxamyl (Vydate)
- pinmicarb (Pirimor)
- propoxur (Baygon)
one of the most important organic anhydrides, used to manufacture pain-relieving pharmaceuticals (aspirin, paracetamol), modified starches, emulsifiers, liquid crystal polymers, dyestuffs and cellulose acetate, a major ingredient in photographic films and textiles.
acetone is an organic solvent of industrial and chemical significance, acetone is capable of dissolving many fats, resins and cellulose esters. It is used extensively in the manufacture of artificial fibres and explosives, as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent for vinyl and acrylic resins, lacquers, paints, inks, cosmetics (such as nail polish remover), and varnishes. It is used in the preparation of paper coatings, adhesives, and is also employed as a starting material in the synthesis of many compounds.
acid rain is a generic term used for precipitation that contains an high concentration of sulfuric and nitric acid. These acids form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water. Acidified particulate matter in the atmosphere is deposited by precipitation onto a surface, often eroding the surface away. This precipitation generally has a pH less than 5 and sometimes much lower depending on the concentration of acidic components. Acid rain has negative impacts on the environment and human health.
the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions See also acid rain
see as soil acidification
acre is a unit of area. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land. Conversion to other area-units:
|acres||ares||40.468 564 224|
|acres||hectares||0.404 685 642 24|
|acres||square kilometers||0.004 046 856 422 4|
|acres||square meters||4,046.856 422 4|
|acres||square miles (statute)||0.001 562 50|
active chlorine can be a single chlorine atom that is a radical and therefore highly reactive. It can also be a molecule containing chlorine that is reactive.
Active chlorine's most notable role in atmospheric chemistry is in catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere and the accumulation of active chlorine at the earth's polar stratosphere during the polar night that leads to major ozone hole formation during the spring.
Active chlorine in water serves as disinfectant for drinking water production, and for swimming pool waters. It is also used in general washing and bleaching of food and textile and for washing of industrial tanks.
active transport is the pumping of ions or molecules across a cell membrane with the help of special enzymes, the so called transport proteins, which are built in or bound to the membrane of the cell. Active transport is going into the opposite direction than simple diffusion. While diffusion is a spontaneous process driven by the concentration-difference between two sides of the cell membrane. Molecules or ions are actively transported into the opposite direction (toward the higher concentration side of the memebrane) than by diffusion, so that active transport requires energy.
Active transport in the cells is able to pump molecules through membranes into the higher concentration space, e.g. more and more hydrogen ions into the stomach to reach a very acidic pH value necessary for digestion.
Nutrient uptake is ensured by active trasnport, even if the nutrient ions and molecules are in very low concentration outside the cell.
Ion pumps create charge differences and charge gradients in cell organelles.
Active transport is able to restrict the diffusion of hazardous or any unwanted ions and molecules into the cell.
Active transport may happen by direct energy uptake with the help of the transmembrane enzymes transporting the ions and molecules and having ATP-ase activity at the same time. The other mechanism of molecular trasport utilises the electrochemical potential difference, which is created by pumping ions (by energy consuming active transport) out of cells.
Some toxins e.g. digitalis inhibit the active transport of the cells.
means all manufacturers and/or importers and/or downstream users in a supply chain.
Acute disease is a disease with either or both of:
- a rapid onset, as in acute infection
- a short course (as opposed to a chronic course).
Subacute is defined as between acute and chronic. Chronic is meaning a long term condition.
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours). To be described as acute toxicity, the adverse effects should occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance.
Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period (months or years).
Acute toxicity test: a short term toxicity or other adverse effect measuring method.
Acute exposure: short term exposure to any dangeres substance or agent.
called also ACR, the ratio of acute and chronic toxicty: knowing ACR the level ot concentration of a toxicant's acute toxicity can be converted into chronic toxicity.
cancer of the bone marrow cells that can progress quickly.
a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells - called lymphoblasts - are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is frequent in childhood. Main causes mey be mutaganic agents or chemical substances.
a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours.
an estimate of a chemical substance, expressed on a bodyweight basis, to which a human population (including sensitive subgroups) can be exposed over a short period of time (24 hours or less), without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.
short term risk of chemical substances on humans or ecosystems.
acute systemic toxicity testing is the estimation of the human hazard potential of a substance by determining its systemic toxicity in a test system (currently animals) following an acute exposure. Its assessment has traditionally been based on the median lethal dose (LD50) value - an estimate of the dose of a test substance that kills 50% of the test animals. For a substance to have systemic toxic effects it must be absorbed by the body and distributed by the circulation to sites in the body where it exerts toxic effects. The liver may transform a circulating drug or chemical to another form (biotransformation), and this new metabolite may be the one causing the observed toxicity.
Acute systemic toxicity is assessed following oral, dermal, and/or inhalation exposure(s) - depending upon the anticipated routes of human exposure to the substance. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS), which is scheduled for implementation in 2008, defines acute toxicity as "those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours"
UNECE, 2004, p. 109.
short term toxicity. The adverse effects of chemical substances which result either from a single exposureor from multiple exposures in a short space of time.
In animal testings "acute" is the toxicity, when the adverse effects occurs within 14 days of the administration of the substance. In ecotoxicity testings acute toxicity is defined as a period of time shorter, than the generation time of the testorganism. The endpoints used for the quantitative characterisation of acute toxicity are: EC50, LC50 or ED50 and LD50 values.
Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period months or years.