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ex situ bioremediation of soil and sediment in slurry reactor
ex situ landfarming
ex situ soil bioremediation in reactors
in situ
In Situ Chemical Oxidation ISCO

chemical oxidation typically involves reduction/oxidation redox reactions that chemically convert hazardous contaminants to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, or inert. Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another.

Specifically, one reactant is oxidized loses electrons and one is reduced gains electrons.

The oxidizing agents most commonly used for treatment of hazardous contaminants in soil are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, and Fentons reagent hydrogen peroxide and iron.

Cyanide oxidation and dechlorination are examples of chemical treatment. This method may be applied in situ or ex situ, to soils, sludges, sediments, and other solids, and may also be applied for the in situ treatment of groundwater.

Source: US-EPA, ClU-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/In_Situ_Oxidation/cat/Overview/

in situ flushing
in situ remediation
in situ soil flushing

soil flushing means the in situ washing of the unsaturated soil zone.

For in situ soil flushing, large volumes of water, at times supplemented with surfactants, cosolvents, or treatment compounds, are applied to the soil or injected into the groundwater to raise the water table into the contaminated soil zone. Injected water and treatment agents are isolated within the underlying aquifer and recovered together with flushed contaminants.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/In_Situ_Flushing/cat/Overview/

in situ soil treatment
in situ thermal soil treatments

many different methods and combinations of techniques can be used to apply heat to polluted soil and/or groundwater in situ. The heat can destroy or volatilize organic chemicals. As the chemicals change into gases, their mobility increases, and the gases can be extracted via collection wells for capture and cleanup in an ex situ treatment unit. Thermal methods can be particularly useful for dense or light nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs or LNAPLs). Heat can be introduced to the subsurface by electrical resistance heating, radio frequency heating, dynamic underground stripping, thermal conduction, or injection of hot water, hot air, or steam.

The main advantage of in situ thermal methods is that they allow soil to be treated without being excavated and transported, resulting in significant cost savings; however, in situ treatment generally requires longer time periods than ex situ treatment, and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in soil and aquifer characteristics and because the efficacy of the process is more difficult to verify.

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING uses arrays of electrodes installed around a central neutral electrode to create a concentrated flow of current toward the central point. Resistance to flow in the soils generates heat greater than 100ºC, producing steam and readily mobile contaminants that are recovered via vacuum extraction and processed at the surface. Electrical resistance heating is an extremely rapid form of remediation with case studies of effective treatment of soil and groundwater in less than 40 days. Three-phase heating and six-phase soil heating are varieties of this technology.

INJECTION OF HOT AIR can volatilize organic contaminants (e.g., fuel hydrocarbons) in soils or sediments. With deeper subsurface applications, hot air is introduced at high pressure through wells or soil fractures. In surface soils, hot air is usually applied in combination with soil mixing or tilling, either in situ or ex situ.

INJECTION OF HOT WATER via injection wells heats the soil and ground water and enhances contaminant release. Hot water injection also displaces fluids (including LNAPL and DNAPL free product) and decreases contaminant viscosity in the subsurface to accelerate remediation through enhanced recovery.

INJECTION OF STEAM heats the soil and groundwater and enhances the release of contaminants from the soil matrix by decreasing viscosity and accelerating volatilization. Steam injection may also destroy some contaminants. As steam is injected through a series of wells within and around a source area, the steam zone grows radially around each injection well. The steam front drives the contamination to a system of ground-water pumping wells in the saturated zone and soil vapor extraction wells in the vadose zone.

RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING is an in situ process that uses electromagnetic energy to heat soil and enhance soil vapor extraction. The technique heats a discrete volume of soil using rows of vertical electrodes embedded in soil or other media. Heated soil volumes are bounded by two rows of ground electrodes with energy applied to a third row midway between the ground rows. The three rows act as a buried triplate capacitor. When energy is applied to the electrode array, heating begins at the top center and proceeds vertically downward and laterally outward through the soil volume. The technique can heat soils to over 300ºC.

THERMAL CONDUCTION (also referred to as electrical conductive heating or in situ thermal desorption) supplies heat to the soil through steel wells or with a blanket that covers the ground surface. As the polluted area is heated, the contaminants are destroyed or evaporated. Steel wells are used when the polluted soil is deep. The blanket is used where the polluted soil is shallow. Typically, a carrier gas or vacuum system transports the volatilized water and organics to a treatment system.

VITRIFICATION uses an electric current to melt contaminated soil at elevated temperatures (1,600 to 2,000ºC or 2,900 to 3,650ºF). Upon cooling, the vitrification product is a chemically stable, leach-resistant, glass and crystalline material similar to obsidian or basalt rock. The high temperature component of the process destroys or removes organic materials. Radionuclides and heavy metals are retained within the vitrified product. Vitrification can be conducted in situ or ex situ.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Thermal_Treatment%3A_In_Situ/cat/Overview/

quasi reactor for in situ soil treatment