loess is a sedimentary rock, transported by wind, having special yellowish color and extremely high minerals" target="_blank">clay minerals content. Due to these it is a very good soil forming basic rock.
It is an aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt and lesser and variable amounts of fine sand and clay. loess is homogeneous, porous, friable, pale yellow, slightly coherent, typically non-stratified and often calcareous. The expression „loess” comes from the German Löss or Löß, and ultimately from Swiss German lösch meaning loose as named by peasants and masons along the Rhine Valley.loess grains are angular with little polishing or rounding and composed of crystals of quartz, feldspar, mica and other minerals. loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions it is some of the most agriculturally productive terrain in the world. In the lower portions of a loess deposit the calcium carbonate tends to form concretions, which on account of their mimetic forms have received such names as, "loess dolls”.The loess can be of glacial and non-glacial origin. Glacial loess is derived from the floodplains of glacial braided rivers that carried large volumes of glacial meltwater and sediments from the annual melting of continental icesheets and mountain icecaps during the summer. Non-glacial loess can originate from deserts, dune fields, playa lakes and volcanic ash. Hungary has several areas that are covered by loess of glacial origin. At locations such as Dunaújváros and Balatonkarattya, loess walls are exposed as loess reefs. Vertical stability of loess is extremely high.
Limit Of Quantification is the lowest concentration, which can be determined with acceptable precision and accuracy applying the given method. For determination of LOQ the precision and accuracy should be also quantified. It can be calculated from the standard deviation of the blank measurement and the slope of the calibration curve. Usually the LOQ is given as 10 times the background noise.
the magnitude of the physiological sensation produced by a sound, which varies directly with the physical intensity of sound but also depends on frequency of sound and waveform.
low-input agriculture: a system of farming methods that minimize reliance on expensive inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and other purchased materials by using these "inputs" as efficiently as possible, or by replacing them with inexpensive organic fertilizers, biological pest controls, and ecological knowledge. Organic farming is one type of low-input agriculture.
lower heating value (also known as net calorific value, net CV, or LHV) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by combusting a specified quantity (initially at 25 °C or another reference state) and returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150 °C. Which means that, LHV assumes all the water component is in vapor state at the end of combustion (in product of combustion), as opposed to HHV that assumes all the water component in liquid form of the combustion gas.
The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered. It is useful in comparing fuels where condensation of the combustion products is impractical, or heat at a temperature below 150 °C cannot be put to use.
By contrast, the higher heating value (HHV) (also called as gross calorific value or gross CV) includes the heat of condensation of water in the combustion products.