mobile phase used to elute sample from the chromatoghraphic column.
pollutants that have been recently discovered in the environment such as endocrine or immune disruptors. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials of interest that are characterized by: - perceived or real threat to human health or environment. - lack of a published health standards or an evolving standard. - contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology
emission controls are controls requiring a specific emission limitation, for instance an emission limit value, or otherwise specifying limits or conditions on the effects, nature or other characteristics of an emission or operating conditions which affect emissions.
a maximum permitted emission into the environment, fixed by any of the legislations. These values are determined based on scientific knowledge and represent a limit value, which beyond the emitted substance may cause unacceptable risk on the ecosystem or human.
the definition of the Water Framework Directive (FWD) says, that emission limit value is the mass, expressed in terms of certain specific parameters, concentration and/or level of an emission, which may not be exceeded during any one or more periods of time. Emission limit values may also be laid down for certain groups, families or categories of substances.
The emission limit values for substances shall normally apply at the point where the emissions leave the installation, dilution being disregarded when determining them. With regard to indirect releases into water, the effect of a waste-water treatment plant may be taken into account when determining the emission limit values of the installations involved, provided that an equivalent level is guaranteed for protection of the environment as a whole and provided that this does not lead to higher levels of pollution in the environment.
Second Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Chemical List (EDSP) for Tier 1 Screening
Chemical Name CAS Number
|Acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)
|Acetochlor oxanilic acid (OA)
|Alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)
|Alachlor oxanilic acid (OA)
|Methyl tert-butyl ether
|Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)
|Metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA)
|Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)
|Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
|Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH)
the percentage of total energy input that does useful work and is not lost or converted to low temperature, usually useless, heat.
enhanced biodegradation or biostimulation means the addition of nutrients to encourage the growth of indigenous contaminant-degrading microorganisms, is one of the most mature methods of bioremediation. It is applicable to both chlorinated and unchlorinated dissolved hydrocarbons.
Biostimulation is dependent on indigenous organisms and thus requires that they are present and that their environment can be altered in a way that will have the desired bioremediation effect. In addition to an explanation of the concept of biostimulation, this chapter discusses critical aspects of site biogeochemistry, characterization and monitoring, combined biological technologies, and research needs.
Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Bioremediation_of_Chlorinated_Solvents/cat/Overview/
it is a system for the accreditation and supervision of environmental verifiers operated by an impartial institution or organisation designated or created by the Member State (accreditation body), with sufficient resources and competency and having appropriate procedures for performing the functions defined by the Regulation of 761/2001 for such a system.
Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 allowing voluntary participation by organisations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS).
For the purposes of Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No 761/2001, the Commission recognises the following standards and accreditation requirements for the certification bodies:
1. in Austrian legislation: Environmental Management Law (UMG BGBl.I Nr.96/2001) in the relevant version applicable to environmental verifier organisations and individual environmental verifiers;
2. in German legislation: guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies for environmental management systems (EMS) and certification procedures for EMS — issued September 1996 by the German Federal Ministries of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and for Economics and approved by the Environmental Verification Committee pursuant to Article 21 of the German EMAS Act (Umweltauditgesetz);
3. accreditation requirements, based on the corresponding Guidelines endorsed and made publicly available by the European cooperation for Accreditation (EA), for ISO 14001:2004 certification bodies accredited according to either of the following:
(a) ISO/IEC 17021:2006 (Conformity assessment — Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of management systems);
(b) ISO/IEC Guide 66:1999 (General Requirements for bodies operating assessment and certification/registration of environmental management systems EMS) until 15 September 2008.
a process which predicts the magnitude and importance of effects of a proposed activity on the environment, and on human health, and establishes conditions under which the activity may be undertaken. The results of the process may prevent the activity from proceeding if the potential effects are unacceptable.
impact of transportation-related activities on the environment, in particular, those impacts dealing with air pollution, noise, displacement of people and businesses, disruption of wildlife habitats, and overall growth-inducing effects.
soil, water, air, biota (plants and animals), or any other parts of the environment is considered as media, which can contain contaminants.
Transport mechanisms move contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur. The environmental media and transport mechanism is the next part of an exposure pathway after the source and before the receptors.
environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment, their role and function. The environmental compartments, such as soil, water, air and sediments are habitatas of plant and animals as well as microorganisms.
An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several thousand species. Microorganisms have special impact on the whole biosphere, on the element-cycles, organic matter degradation (decomposers) and reuse (nutrient recycling), they are the backbone of ecosystems of the zones where light cannot approach. Microbes have a special role in biogeochemical cycles. Microbes, especially bacteria, are of great importance and influence on the whole ecosystem.
Microorganisms are used for in-situ microbial biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. Since most sites typically have multiple pollutant types, the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial species and strains, each specific to the biodegradation of one or more types of contaminants. It is vital to monitor the composition of the indigenous and added bacteria in order to evaluate the activity level and to permit modifications of the nutrients and other conditions for optimizing the bioremediation process.
The most important events of the development of environmetal microbiology:
1887 Sergei Winogradsky studies Beggiatoa and establishes the concept of autotrophy.
1888 Martinus Beijerinck develops the technique of enrichment culture.
1891 Winogradsky discovers the organisms responsible for nitrification is soil, which is of great importance in agriculture because nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in the soil.
1904 Martinus Beijerinck obtains the first pure culture of sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus denitrificans.
1904 Cornelius Johan Koning suggests that fungi are critical for the decomposition of organic matter.
1909 Sigurd Orla-Jensen proposes the use of physiological characteristics for the classification of bacteria. He later publishes a monograph on lactic acid bacteria that establishes the criteria for assignment.
1920 The Society of American Bacteriologists presents a report on the characterization and classification of bacterial types that becomes the basis for Bergey's manual in 1923.
1961 Brian McCarthy and E. T. Bolton describe a method to compare genetic material from different species using hybridization. Using this technique it is possible to quantitatively compare the relatedness of the two species.
1965 Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling publish "Molecules as documents of evolutionary history", making a compelling case for the use of molecular sequences of biological molecules to determine evolutionary relationships.
1969 Don Brenner and colleagues establish a more reliable basis for the classification of clinical isolates among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. They use nucleic acid reassociation, where DNA of one organism is allowed to hybridize with another organism. This technique is used to help define a species.
1977 Carl Woese uses ribosomal RNA analysis to identify a third form of life, the Archaea, whose genetic makeup is distinct from but related to both Bacteria and Eucarya.
1977 Holger Jannasch discovers abundant life at the bottom of the ocean near deep sea hydrothermal vents. The entire system is dependent upon sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Light and photosynthesis do not drive the process.
1982 Karl Stetter isolates hydrothermophilic microbes (Archaea) that can grow at 105°C. The discovery redefines the upper temperature at which life can exist.
1994 Gary Olsen, Carl Woese and Ross Overbeek summarize the state of phylogeny in prokaryotes. This causes scientists to rethink the classification of life and emphasizes the importance of microbes.
the observation of environmental conditions. Periodic or continuous surveillance or testing to determine the level of compliance with statutory requirements and/or pollutant levels in groundwater, water, soils or fauna and flora. Source: EUGRIS
the sound and the characteristics of sounds from all sources in the surrounding environment.
environmental objectives laid down in Article 4(1) of WFD require Member States to prevent deterioration of the status of all bodies of surface water and groundwater and to achieve good status as a rule by 2015. In addition, pollution from priority substances has to progressively be reduced, emissions of hazardous substances shall be ceased or phased out, and any significant upward trend in pollution in groundwater has also to be reversed by appropriate measures.