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elimination of sulphur dioxide
ELINCS, European List of Notified Chemical Substances
in liquid chromatography the solutes, or analytes, moved through a chromatographic column (see elution).

mobile phase used to elute sample from the chromatoghraphic column.

process whereby a solute is moved through a chromatographic column by a solvent (liquid or gas) (eluent).
emerging contaminants

pollutants that have been recently discovered in the environment such as endocrine or immune disruptors. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials of interest that are characterized by: - perceived or real threat to human health or environment. - lack of a published health standards or an evolving standard. - contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology

emission controls

emission controls are controls requiring a specific emission limitation, for instance an emission limit value, or otherwise specifying limits or conditions on the effects, nature or other characteristics of an emission or operating conditions which affect emissions.

emission cross-section
emission limit value

a maximum permitted emission into the environment, fixed by any of the legislations. These values are determined based on scientific knowledge and represent a limit value, which beyond the emitted substance may cause unacceptable risk on the ecosystem or human.

emission limit value, WFD

the definition of the Water Framework Directive (FWD) says, that emission limit value is the mass, expressed in terms of certain specific parameters, concentration and/or level of an emission, which may not be exceeded during any one or more periods of time. Emission limit values may also be laid down for certain groups, families or categories of substances.

The emission limit values for substances shall normally apply at the point where the emissions leave the installation, dilution being disregarded when determining them. With regard to indirect releases into water, the effect of a waste-water treatment plant may be taken into account when determining the emission limit values of the installations involved, provided that an equivalent level is guaranteed for protection of the environment as a whole and provided that this does not lead to higher levels of pollution in the environment.

emission unit in the air protection
emulsifiers, detergents
ENA = Enhanced Natural Attenuation
endocrine disrupting agents
endocrine disruptors are naturally occurring or man-made substances that may mimic or interfere with natural hormones in the body. Endocrine disruptors may turn on, shut off, or modify signals that hormones carry and thus affect the normal functions of tissues and organs.
The NTP (National Toxicology Programme) is involved in several efforts to strengthen the science base within this field.
endocrine disruptors, list

Second Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Chemical List (EDSP) for Tier 1 Screening

Source: http://www.caslab.com/Endocrine-Disruptor-Chemical-List/

Chemical Name CAS Number

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3
1,1-Dichloroethylene 75-35-4
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) 96-12-8
1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2
1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5
1,3-Dinitrobenzene 99-65-0
1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1
1-Butanol 71-36-3
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 93-72-1
2-Methoxyethanol 109-86-4
2-Propen-1-ol 107-18-6
4,4'-Methylenedianiline 101-77-9
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0
Acetamide 60-35-5
Acetochlor 34256-82-1
Acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) 187022-11-3
Acetochlor oxanilic acid (OA) 194992-44-4
Acrolein 107-02-8
Acrylamide 79-06-1
Alachlor 15972-60-8
Alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) 142363-53-9
Alachlor oxanilic acid (OA) 171262-17-2
alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane 319-84-6
Aniline 62-53-3
Bensulide 741-58-2
Benzene 71-43-2
Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs) 50-32-8
Benzyl chloride 100-44-7
Butylated hydroxyanisole 25013-16-5
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5
Chlordane 57-74-9
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-59-2
Clethodim 99129-21-2
Clofentezine 74115-24-5
Clomazone 81777-89-1
Coumaphos 56-72-4
Cumene hydroperoxide 80-15-9
Cyanamide 420-04-2
Cyromazine 66215-27-8
Dalapon 75-99-0
Denatonium saccharide 90823-38-4
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 103-23-1
Dichloromethane 75-09-2
Dicrotophos 141-66-2
Dimethipin 55290-64-7
Dinoseb 88-85-7
Diuron 330-54-1
Endothall 145-73-3
Endrin 72-20-8
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8
Erythromycin 114-07-8
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4
Ethylene glycol 107-21-1
Ethylene thiourea 96-45-7
Ethylurethane 51-79-6
Etofenprox 80844-07-1
Fenamiphos 22224-92-6
Fenarimol 60168-88-9
Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 71283-80-2
Fenoxycarb 72490-01-8
Flumetsulam 98967-40-9
Fomesafen sodium 108731-70-0
Fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 39148-24-8
Glufosinate ammonium 77182-82-2
HCFC-22 75-45-6
Heptachlor 76-44-8
Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3
Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 77-47-4
Hexane 110-54-3
Hexythiazox 78587-05-0
Hydrazine 302-01-2
Isoxaben 82558-50-7
Lactofen 77501-63-4
Lindane 58-89-9
Methanol 67-56-1
Methoxychlor 72-43-5
Methyl tert-butyl ether 1634-04-4
Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) 171118-09-5
Metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA) 152019-73-3
Molinate 2212-67-1
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3
Nitroglycerin 55-63-0
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 872-50-4
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 62-75-9
n-Propylbenzene 103-65-1
o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1
o-Toluidine 95-53-4
Oxirane, methyl- 75-56-9
Oxydemeton-methyl 301-12-2
Oxyfluorfen 42874-03-3
Paclobutrazol 76738-62-0
p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7
Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5
Perchlorate 14797-73-0
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) 1763-23-1
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 335-67-1
Picloram 1918-02-1
Polychlorinated biphenyls 1336-36-3
Profenofos 41198-08-7
Propetamphos 31218-83-4
Propionic acid 79-09-4
Pyridate 55512-33-9
Quinclorac 84087-01-4
Quinoline 91-22-5
Quizalofop-P-ethyl 100646-51-3
RDX 121-82-4
sec-Butylbenzene 135-98-8
Sodium tetrathiocarbonate 7345-69-9
Styrene 100-42-5
Sulfosate 81591-81-3
Temephos 3383-96-8
Terbufos 13071-79-9
Terbufos sulfone 56070-16-7
Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4
Thiophanate-methyl 23564-05-8
Toluene diisocyanate 26471-62-5
Toxaphene 8001-35-2
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-60-5
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6
Triethylamine 121-44-8
Triflumizole 68694-11-1
Trinexapac-ethyl 95266-40-3
Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) 76-87-9
Vinclozolin 50471-44-8
Xylenes (total) 1330-20-7
Ziram 137-30-4
endpoint of a test
endpoints of environmental toxicity testing
energy efficiency

the percentage of total energy input that does useful work and is not lost or converted to low temperature, usually useless, heat.

energy source
engineering sciences
engineering tool of environmnetal risk management
enhanced biodegradation

enhanced biodegradation or biostimulation means the addition of nutrients to encourage the growth of indigenous contaminant-degrading microorganisms, is one of the most mature methods of bioremediation. It is applicable to both chlorinated and unchlorinated dissolved hydrocarbons.

Biostimulation is dependent on indigenous organisms and thus requires that they are present and that their environment can be altered in a way that will have the desired bioremediation effect. In addition to an explanation of the concept of biostimulation, this chapter discusses critical aspects of site biogeochemistry, characterization and monitoring, combined biological technologies, and research needs.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Bioremediation_of_Chlorinated_Solvents/cat/Overview/

enhanced composting for POP-contaminated soil
Enhanced Natural Attenuation
Enhanced Natural Attenuation ENA
enhanced noise-protection area
entertainment noise or vibration source
entrance velocity
enviromentally utilization
environment use
environment using
environmental accreditation system

it is a system for the accreditation and supervision of environmental verifiers operated by an impartial institution or organisation designated or created by the Member State (accreditation body), with sufficient resources and competency and having appropriate procedures for performing the functions defined by the Regulation of 761/2001 for such a system.

Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 allowing voluntary participation by organisations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS).

For the purposes of Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No 761/2001, the Commission recognises the following standards and accreditation requirements for the certification bodies:

1. in Austrian legislation: Environmental Management Law (UMG BGBl.I Nr.96/2001) in the relevant version applicable to environmental verifier organisations and individual environmental verifiers;

2. in German legislation: guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies for environmental management systems (EMS) and certification procedures for EMS — issued September 1996 by the German Federal Ministries of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and for Economics and approved by the Environmental Verification Committee pursuant to Article 21 of the German EMAS Act (Umweltauditgesetz);

3. accreditation requirements, based on the corresponding Guidelines endorsed and made publicly available by the European cooperation for Accreditation (EA), for ISO 14001:2004 certification bodies accredited according to either of the following:

(a) ISO/IEC 17021:2006 (Conformity assessment — Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of management systems);

(b) ISO/IEC Guide 66:1999 (General Requirements for bodies operating assessment and certification/registration of environmental management systems EMS) until 15 September 2008.

environmental air
environmental contamination
environmental damage preventive measure
environmental effects of management activities
environmental element
environmental ethics
environmental fate of chemical substances
environmental impact assessment

a process which predicts the magnitude and importance of effects of a proposed activity on the environment, and on human health, and establishes conditions under which the activity may be undertaken. The results of the process may prevent the activity from proceeding if the potential effects are unacceptable.

Source: http://www.iisd.org/sd/glossary.aspx

environmental impact of transport

impact of transportation-related activities on the environment, in particular, those impacts dealing with air pollution, noise, displacement of people and businesses, disruption of wildlife habitats, and overall growth-inducing effects.

environmental media

soil, water, air, biota (plants and animals), or any other parts of the environment is considered as media, which can contain contaminants.

Transport mechanisms move contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur. The environmental media and transport mechanism is the next part of an exposure pathway after the source and before the receptors.

environmental microbiology

environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment, their role and function. The environmental compartments, such as soil, water, air and sediments are habitatas of plant and animals as well as microorganisms.

An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several thousand species. Microorganisms have special impact on the whole biosphere, on the element-cycles, organic matter degradation (decomposers) and reuse (nutrient recycling), they are the backbone of ecosystems of the zones where light cannot approach. Microbes have a special role in biogeochemical cycles. Microbes, especially bacteria, are of great importance and influence on the whole ecosystem.

Microorganisms are used for in-situ microbial biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. Since most sites typically have multiple pollutant types, the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial species and strains, each specific to the biodegradation of one or more types of contaminants. It is vital to monitor the composition of the indigenous and added bacteria in order to evaluate the activity level and to permit modifications of the nutrients and other conditions for optimizing the bioremediation process.

environmental microbiology, history

The most important events of the development of environmetal microbiology:

1887 Sergei Winogradsky studies Beggiatoa and establishes the concept of autotrophy.

1888 Martinus Beijerinck develops the technique of enrichment culture.

1891 Winogradsky discovers the organisms responsible for nitrification is soil, which is of great importance in agriculture because nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in the soil.

1904 Martinus Beijerinck obtains the first pure culture of sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus denitrificans.

1904 Cornelius Johan Koning suggests that fungi are critical for the decomposition of organic matter.

1909 Sigurd Orla-Jensen proposes the use of physiological characteristics for the classification of bacteria. He later publishes a monograph on lactic acid bacteria that establishes the criteria for assignment.

1920 The Society of American Bacteriologists presents a report on the characterization and classification of bacterial types that becomes the basis for Bergey's manual in 1923.

1961 Brian McCarthy and E. T. Bolton describe a method to compare genetic material from different species using hybridization. Using this technique it is possible to quantitatively compare the relatedness of the two species.

1965 Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling publish "Molecules as documents of evolutionary history", making a compelling case for the use of molecular sequences of biological molecules to determine evolutionary relationships.

1969 Don Brenner and colleagues establish a more reliable basis for the classification of clinical isolates among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. They use nucleic acid reassociation, where DNA of one organism is allowed to hybridize with another organism. This technique is used to help define a species.

1977 Carl Woese uses ribosomal RNA analysis to identify a third form of life, the Archaea, whose genetic makeup is distinct from but related to both Bacteria and Eucarya.

1977 Holger Jannasch discovers abundant life at the bottom of the ocean near deep sea hydrothermal vents. The entire system is dependent upon sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Light and photosynthesis do not drive the process.

1982 Karl Stetter isolates hydrothermophilic microbes (Archaea) that can grow at 105°C. The discovery redefines the upper temperature at which life can exist.

1994 Gary Olsen, Carl Woese and Ross Overbeek summarize the state of phylogeny in prokaryotes. This causes scientists to rethink the classification of life and emphasizes the importance of microbes.



environmental monitoring

the observation of environmental conditions. Periodic or continuous surveillance or testing to determine the level of compliance with statutory requirements and/or pollutant levels in groundwater, water, soils or fauna and flora. Source: EUGRIS

environmental noise

the sound and the characteristics of sounds from all sources in the surrounding environment.

environmental objectives for surface waters, WFD

environmental objectives laid down in Article 4(1) of WFD require Member States to prevent deterioration of the status of all bodies of surface water and groundwater and to achieve good status as a rule by 2015. In addition, pollution from priority substances has to progressively be reduced, emissions of hazardous substances shall be ceased or phased out, and any significant upward trend in pollution in groundwater has also to be reversed by appropriate measures.