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application of microbial inoculant for soil remediation
chlorine-respiration based soil remediation
classification of soil remediation technologies
economical evaluation of soil remediation
electrokinetic soil remediation

electrokinetics relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between ceramic electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions, ammonium ions, and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, cyanide, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode.

Removal of contaminants at the electrode may be accomplished by several means, among which are: electroplating at the electrode; precipitation or co-precipitation at the electrode; pumping of water near the electrode; or complexing with ion exchange resins.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Electrokinetics%3A_Electric_Current_Technologies/cat/Overview/

ex situ bioremediation of soil and sediment in slurry reactor
ex situ soil bioremediation in reactors
ex situ soil remediation
grain size fractionation as soil remediation technology
Natural Attenuation as basis of soil remediation
on site soil remediation
slurry phase reactor for soil remediation
soil bioremediation based on aerobic oxidation

soil bioremediation based on aerobic oxidation means that the soil remediation is based on aerobic biodegradation. The microbiological biodegradation occurs in this case on a high redoxpotential of +0,8-+0,6 Volt. The degrading microorganisms utilise the pollutant as enbergy sources. The source of oxigen is the atmospheric air, soil air, or dissolved oxigen in soil moisture or ground water. If the oxigen-concentration is low, the technologist can increase it by aeration of the soil or the groundwater as well as by adding peroxide substances or other oxigene release compounds ORC to serve as oxigene source for the activation of the aerobic soil microbes.

soil remediation
soil remediation based on aerobic biodegradation

soil remediation based on aerobic biodegradation is an oxidative process catalysed by microbes. Microbes, mainly bacteria utilise the contaminant as substrate for producing energy. Aerobic bacteria use athmospheric oxigen for the oxidation of the polluting organic compounds and produce inorganic products, such as CO2, NO3 and H2O. This process is also called mineralisation.

When athmospheric oxigen is limited, the biodegradation is catalysed by facultative anaerobic microbes, which use NO3 for their alternative respiration. In this case the oxidation/mineralisation products from the substrate the contaminant are alcohols or aldehydes.

soil remediation based on anaerobic biodegradation

anaerobic biodegradation of soil contaminants is based on the aternative respiration of soil microorganisms, using oxigen from NO32-, SO42-or CO2, as hydrogen-acceptor instead of atmospheric oxigen. Paralel to the oxidation of the contaminant energy source in this case, nitrate, sulfate and carbonate are reduced into N2 via nitrite NO2, nitric oxide NO, nitrous oxide N2O, H2S and CH4 respectively.

There are some metals which can also be reduced and function as electronacceptor, such as ferric ion Fe3+reduction to Fe2+ or Fe0, manganic ion Mn4+ reduction to Mn2+, selenate SeO42- reduction to selenite: SeO32- and Se0, arsenate AsO43- reduction to arsenite: AsO33- or uranyl ion UO22+ reduction to uranium dioxide UO2 for the electron transport chain.

The anaerobic biodegradation of xenobiotics needs a microorganism- and metabolism-specific redoxpotential. The soil remedial biotechnology is responsible for ensuring the proper redoxpotential in the soil to control the process and run biodegradation on the optimum.

To control the redoxpotential the technologist should ensure sufficient quantity of nitrate, sulfate or any other electronacceptors in the soil.

soil remediation based on nitrate-respiration
soil remediation based on the immobilisation of the contaminant
thermal soil remediation
thermally enhanced soil remediation