food toxicology aims safe and edible supply of food to the consumers. Measures the toxic effect of row material, products, food additives and residual substances in food, such plant protection products or food processing additives.
fracture zones and hot spots can be found in the litosphere, the rigid outer layer of Earth, beneath of oceans and continents.
Ain the Earth, the lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle. The boundary between the lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere is defined by a difference in response to stress: the lithosphere remains rigid for very long periods of geologic time in which it deforms elastically and through brittle failure, while the asthenosphere deforms viscously and accommodates strain through plastic deformation. There are two types of lithosphere: 1) oceanic lithosphere, which is associated with oceanic crust and exists in the ocean basins, 2) continental lithosphere, which is associated with continental crust. The composition of the two types of crust differs markedly, with basaltic rocks ("mafic") dominating oceanic crust, while continental crust consists principally of lower density granitic rocks ("felsic"). The lithosphere is broken into tectonic plates. The following tectonic plates currently exist on the earth's surface with roughly definable boundaries. There are seven primary plates (African Plate, Antarctic Plate, Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, North American Plate, Pacific Plate, South American Plate) and some secondary smaller plates (Arabian-, Caribbean-, Cocos-, Scotia-, Adria-, Aegean-, Arab-, Iranian-, Nazca-, Philippine Sea -plates).These plates are rigid segments that move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries: 1) convergent boundaries, at which two plates come together, (an example of such a boundary is the San Andreas fault in California) 2) divergent boundaries, at which two plates are pulled apart (the Atlantic Ocean was created by this process, the mid-Atlantic Ridge is an area where new sea floor is being created), and 3) transform boundaries, in which two plates slide past one another laterally. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur along these plate boundaries. The tectonic plates ride on top of the asthenosphere, the solid but less-viscous part of the upper mantle that can flow and move along with the plates, and their motion is strongly coupled with patterns convection inside the Earth's mantle. An example of this is the Nazca plate being subducted under the South American plate to form the Andes Mountain Chain.
fracturing is a way to crack rock or very dense soil, like clay, below ground. It is not necessarily a cleanup method in itself. Rather, fracturing is used to break up the ground to help other cleanup methods work better. The cracks, which are called fractures, create paths through which harmful chemicals can be removed or destroyed.
Hydraulic fracturing uses a liquid?usually water. The water is pumped under pressure into holes drilled in the ground. The force of the water causes the soil (or sometimes rock) to crack. It also causes existing fractures to grow larger. To fracture soil at greater depths, sand is pumped underground with the water. The sand helps prop the fractures open and keep them from closing under the weight of the soil.
Pneumatic fracturing uses air, to fracture soil. It also can help remove chemicals that evaporate or change to gases quickly when exposed to air. When air is forced into the soil, the chemicals evaporate and the gases are captured and treated above ground.
Air can be forced into the ground at different depths within a hole. When air is forced near the ground surface, the surface around the holes may rise as much as an inch, but will settle back close to its original level. In both pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, equipment placed underground directs the pressure to the particular zone of soil that needs to be fractured.
Blast-enhanced fracturing uses explosives, such as dynamite, to fracture rock. The explosives are placed in holes and detonated. The main purpose is to create more pathways for polluted groundwater to reach wells drilled for pump and treat cleanup.
Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Fracturing/cat/Overview/
fresh-water limit means the place in the watercourse where, at low tide and in a period of low fresh-water flow, there is an appreciable increase in salinity due to the presence of sea-water.
a general term applied to oil used for the production of power or heat. In a more restricted sense, it is applied to any petroleum product that is used as boiler fuel or in industrial furnaces. These oils are normally residues, but blends of distillates and residues are also used as fuel oil. Nowadays their use is restricted partly because of their high sulfur content partly because of the more economic natural gas. They are transformed into engine fuel or other products by hydrocracking, coking, etc.
fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. Fungi are classified as a kingdom that is separate from plants, animals and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Mycology is the science for studying fungi. We know more than 100 000 fungal species, but the estimated number of unknown fungi is 3-400 000.
Many of the fungal strains are pathogenic, causing plant, animal and human diseases, called mycoses. Some of them produce toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or hallucinogenic toxins, which may cause harm on humans.
We utilise microfungi in food industry, in the production of drogs and fine chemicals. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products. Yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used to produce alcoholic beverages through fermentation. Shoyu koji mold (Aspergillus oryzae) is an essential ingredient in brewing soy sauce and sake, and the preparation of miso, while Rhizopus species are used for making tempeh. Several of these fungi are domesticated species that were bred or selected according to their capacity to ferment food without producing harmful mycotoxins.
Certain mushrooms enjoy usage as therapeutics in folk medicines, such as traditional Chinese medicine. Notable medicinal mushrooms with a well-documented history of use include Agaricus blazei, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis. Research has identified compounds produced by these and other fungi that have inhibitory biological effects against viruses and cancer cells. Specific metabolites, such as polysaccharide-K, ergotamine, and β-lactam antibiotics, are routinely used in clinical medicine. The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan, a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan. In Europe and Japan, polysaccharide-K (brand name Krestin), a chemical derived from Trametes versicolor, is an approved adjuvant for cancer therapy.
Antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industries are produced by Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Acremonium species.